Urban Labour Force Survey (ULFS), 1986.
Rural Labour Force Survey (RLFS), 1988/89.
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and Long Range Planning Unit, Ministry of Planning and National Development.
Excluded are institutional populations, non-resident citizens, foreigners and members of the armed forces.
In the 1986 ULFS, all persons between the ages of 15-64 were enumerated for potential membership in the labour force. Some information was also obtained for the 14 year olds and those above the age of 64, but published results only cover those aged 15 to 64 years.
In the 1988/89 RLFS, the economically active population relates to persons aged 8 to 64 years.
The surveys are carried out on an ad hoc basis.
A single day, the day prior to the interview (known as the "yesterday" approach).
The surveys provide information on employment, unemployment, underemployment, hours of work, income, duration of employment and duration of unemployment, discouraged workers, industry, occupation, status in employment and level of education.
Excluded from the employed are:
In the 1986 ULFS, a member of the labour force had to satisfy the following three conditions to be considered as visibly underemployed:
An attempt has also been made to estimate the significance of disguised underemployment, i.e. those individuals who are employed but whose earnings can be considered to be inadequate in relation to their training and work experience. For purposes of the ULFS, a wage norm was identified for each worker based on his/her level of educational attainment and used to estimate the degree of his/her disguised underemployment.
"Looking for work" is interpreted as having taken one or more of the following actions: wrote to employer/relative, etc.; applied to Union Office or to Labour Office; answered newspaper advertisements; asked relatives, friends, etc.; approached employer directly, etc.
Full- or part-time students seeking full- or part-time work are excluded from the unemployed and considered as inactive.
Members of the population who are without work, available for work but not looking for work and who report that no work is available, are excluded from the unemployed and classified as "discouraged workers".
Information on the RLFS is not yet available.
Data on the distribution of the unemployed by occupation profile of jobs being sought are also available from that survey, according to the same classification.
Information on the RLFS is not yet available.
Since all respondents of working age were asked for all current job activities, but not previous activities, the unemployed were not classified by job status.
In the 1988/89 RLFS, data on status in employment of employed persons were collected according to the following status groups:
Information is also collected on the highest certificate, degree or diploma obtained, according to nine codes. In addition, further information is collected and published on training received both from private and public sources, related to the current job and/or to the job sought.
The urban centers included in the sampling frame are defined as those which reported a population in excess of 2,000 in the 1979 Population Census and which were located in the area covered by the NASSEP sample. The sampled area excludes the northern half of Kenya. Since this area contains very few urban centers, over 95 per cent of the urban population in 1979 was covered by the 1986 ULFS.
Ultimate sampling units are households. Household listings were compiled by teams of field enumerators and households were selected from these lists by systematic random sampling to make the sample for the ULFS. All members of the selected households were covered by the survey. An up-to-date listing of households was obtained three months prior to field work.
The overall sample size was about 3,058 households, representing about 2 per cent of the urban population.
The corresponding information for the 1988/89 RLFS is not available yet.
For the 1986 ULFS, data collection took place over six weeks, in November and December 1986. Each enumerator covered about two clusters, each containing between eight and 13 households. The 1988/89 RLFS was carried out in two phases: August-October 1988 and February-April 1989. Each Enumerator also covered about two clusters, and interviewed about 30 households.
Extensive field supervision takes place throughout the field work. Questionnaires submitted by enumerators are checked for completeness by supervisors and revisits made to households for which errors or omissions are found. Supervisors also ensure that call-backs are made to maximize the response rate. Once a cluster is completed, the questionnaires are returned to district headquarters and then forwarded to CBS headquarters in Nairobi.
Data entry and analysis are made on microcomputers with built-in validity and consistency checks.
Estimates of totals are made by weighting data for each individual respondent and summing up results over all respondents in the sample.
The weights used to convert individual cluster returns to national urban totals were modified to reflect both forms of non-response.
No information is available on the 1988/89 RLFS.
Because of the seasonality of activity in rural areas, the RLFS was conducted in two periods, August of 1988 and March of 1989 and the same households visited during each of these periods so that the results of the survey not be biased.
No other adjustments were made.
In the 1986 ULFS, enumerators reported occasional difficulties in obtaining information on personal incomes. A second minor problem occurred when the household head being questioned was different from the head listed during the generation of the sample. No other information is available.
The first labour force survey was conducted in 1977/78 and covered both urban and rural areas of Kenya. The 1986 ULFS was restricted to urban areas and the 1988/89 RLFS complemented the ULFS.
The 1977/78 and 1986 surveys are based on slightly different definitions of labour force activity and unemployment. The most significant of these differences is the length of the reference period used in the survey. The 1977/78 LFS used a single day reference period and cycled the survey over a one-year period. In the 1986 ULFS, data collection was limited to a six-week period and respondents were asked for their work activities "yesterday" as a single day reference period, but were also asked for their "usual" status. Job search activities were determined with respect to a one-week period, though activities yesterday were also determined to allow comparisons with the 1977/78 survey.
The 1988/89 RLFS used the "yesterday" and last week approach.
Central Bureau of Statistics: "Labour Force Survey, 1977/78, Basic Report" (Nairobi, Ministry of Planning and National Development, 1986).
idem: "Urban Labour Force Survey, 1986" (ibid., 1988).
The results of the 1988/89 RLFS are not yet available.
Non-published results can also be made available upon request.