National Survey of the urban economically active population (Enquête nationale sur la population active urbaine - ENPAU).
Directorate of Statistics, Ministry of Planning (Direction de la statistique, ministère du Plan).
Excluded from the coverage of the survey are persons resident in collective households (military barracks, philanthropic institutions, places of detention, etc.) and non-residents. However, students in halls of residence and boarding schools are considered as members of the households surveyed.
The survey is annual and takes place throughout the year.
The day before the interview, or the week or month preceding the interview, according to the category of questions.
The survey provides information on employment, unemployment, underemployment, hours of work, wages, duration of unemployment, regularity of employment (permanent, occasional or seasonal workers), industry, occupation, status in employment and level of education.
Also considered as employed are persons who, during the reference period, are not working because of illness, leave, labour-management disputes or temporary stoppage for reasons beyond their control, provided they are certain to return to work (with which they have a formal job attachment, such as wage or contract) within a period not exceeding two months.
The employed population also includes:
Excluded from the employed are:
Persons laid off temporarily or for a period of indefinite duration without pay, and seasonal workers awaiting seasonal (agricultural or other) work are considered as unemployed.
No specific reference period is used for job search. "Actively looking for work" means registering at an employment agency; seeking assistance from friends, relatives and acquaintances, etc.; direct contact with possible employers; MOKAF (non-institutional premises where jobseekers pay daily visits in order to be recruited by employers); studying or inserting advertisements in the newspapers; written applications and competitive examinations, etc.
Full-time or part-time students looking for full-time or part-time work are excluded from the unemployed and considered as inactive.
The whole of the economically active population is classified by industry, occupation and status in employment. All persons covered by the survey are classified according to their level of education, and persons aged 10 years and over are classified according to the highest diploma obtained.
The 27-group classification is convertible to the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC-1968) at the 3-digit level.
The classification used has eight groups and is convertible to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-1968) to the level of major groups (1-digit coding).
This classification is convertible to the International Classification of Status in Employment (ICSE).
The final sampling fraction is approximately 2 per cent and the sample represents approximately 40,000 households (200,000 persons). In 1986, nearly 36,278 households were so observed.
The method used for the survey is the direct method. When interviewing a household the interviewer fills in a questionnaire with the help of instructions prepared for that purpose, and interviews on average six households daily. The questionnaire is pre-codified, and the interviewers directly code the replies given by the persons surveyed, except those answers requiring the use of a nomenclature (occupation, economic activity and highest diploma obtained). The survey takes the whole year. The files on the final units surveyed are sent every month to the Compilation Centre at the Directorate of Statistics.
Completed questionnaires are checked on the spot by the supervisors when information is collected. In case of error or omission, the interviewer who filled in the questionnaire sees the household again. Questionnaires are then checked in detail by the regional offices, and errors and omissions found are corrected by re-interview. When the Compilation Centre is sent the questionnaires it checks the quality of the information collected and codes the questions on occupation, economic activity and diplomas.
After coding, the questionnaires are sent to the Computer Division for data capture and computer processing, and undergo tests for accuracy and coherence. They are analysed by a team of computer experts and statisticians from the Household Surveys Division. The principle of automatic correction (by programme) has been adopted for auditing the files, in order to reduce the time required for analysis of the survey data.
Weighting and adjustment of the survey results are in two stages. The first consists in adjusting the basic extrapolation coefficients in order to reduce the distorsions that may be caused by non-response. The adjustment is by region and at the level of each of the strata of the sample design (kind of habitat). Its principle consists in multiplying the basic extrapolation coefficients by (1 + Xn), where Xn is the ratio of non-respondent households to the total number of households surveyed (including non-respondent households).
The second stage consists in rendering the population estimates shown by the survey consistent with those of the population projections. The auxiliary information used in correcting the weighting coefficients is the breakdown of the population by sex and by age. The data shown by the survey are compared with the population projections. The weights of all the persons surveyed within a class are corrected by the same multiplying factor (the factor varying from class to class) so that the structures by sex and by age shown by the survey are consistent with those of the population projections.
Sampling errors are calculated for internal use only, and are not published.
Adjustment for non-response is made when results are extrapolated. The crux of the correction procedure is to increase the weights of respondent households so that they represent the non-respondent households.
No adjustment is made for seasonal variations.
Non-sampling errors are negligible, due to the controls made at various stages of the survey.
The first series of annual surveys of urban employment took place from 1976 to 1982. Each annual survey covered approximately 16,000 households, or nearly 1 per cent of the urban population. The survey took place in April and May every year.
The second series began in 1984, following the General Population and Housing Census of 1982 and the introduction in 1983 by the Directorate of Statistics of the Ministry of Planning of a national system of household surveys.
The methodology of the survey was completely revised in 1984. Amendments affected nearly all features of the survey, including the sample design, concepts and methods of observation of the economically active population, the time taken to conduct the survey, and its organisation in the field.
Following each annual survey the Directorate of Statistics publishes the reports on the preliminary results, synthetic results and detailed results. For the latest available data and methodological information, see especially:
Ministère du Plan, Direction de la statistique: "Enquêtes statistiques, Population active urbaine 1986, Vol. I: Rapport de Synthèse" (Rabat, 1988).
Other unpublished results in the form of tables and magnetic tapes are also available, on application to the Directorate of Statistics.