DESCRIPTIONS OF THE OCCUPATIONS

In deciding on the titles of the occupations selected for the October Inquiry, account has been taken of common English usage. In many cases, however, the wide variations in national terminology concerning occupations have made an arbitrary choice unavoidable. An attempt has been made to use titles which reflect the content of the occupation and, so far as possible, employ terms which are widely understood in the different regions of the world. Nevertheless, to identify positively the scope of an occupation and the types of workers covered, the corresponding descriptions are provided in this annex and should be consulted. They are presented in the order in which the occupations appear in the questionnaire and are numbered in the same way.

Each description is given in the form of a short opening statement describing the general functions of the occupation, followed by an enumeration of the main tasks usually performed. The description may mention possible variations in the way in which the work is performed, and may include certain tasks which are sometimes performed by workers in the occupation but which are not necessarily considered as inherent in that occupation.

The occupations and industry groups have been coded, as far as possible, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations and to the United Nations International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities respectively. They are listed at the end of the document, after the descriptions. The codes for 1968 and 1988 versions of each classification system are shown.

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION - FIELD CROPS

1. Farm supervisor

Supervises operations in connection with growing, harvesting and marketing of agricultural produce, and maintenance of machinery, implements and equipment, under the direction of the farm manager:

assists in examining the soil, irrigation facilities, marketing, etc., to determine type of crop to be grown; helps in selection and purchase of seed, fertilisers and equipment and stores them; guides operations of ploughing, harrowing, sowing, watering, weeding and hoeing; supervises making of channels for irrigation, preparing manure, grafting and budding plants, harvesting, threshing and winnowing; looks after bagging, storing and transporting of produce; controls field staff; assists in preparation of cost and production statements, payment of wages, etc.; attends to other tasks assigned to him.

2. Field crop farm worker

Performs, by hand or machine, a variety of tasks in the propagation, cultivation and harvesting of field crops, under the supervision of the farm supervisor:

ploughs, harrows and fertilises soil; sows seeds and plants seedlings; weeds, thins and sprays crops; irrigates fields; harvests crops; threshes and winnows grain, bales and stacks straw; uses a variety of farming equipment, including animal-drawn and motorised equipment; assists in maintaining and repairing farm buildings, fences, machinery and other equipment; attends to other tasks assigned to him.

Should be designated according to type of work done and type of crop.

PLANTATIONS

3. Plantation supervisor

Supervises operations in connection with growing, harvesting and marketing of plantation produce and maintenance of machinery, implements and equipment, under direction of plantation manager:

assists in examining soil, irrigation facilities, marketing, etc., to determine type of crop to be grown; helps in selection and purchase of seed, fertilisers and equipment and stores them; guides operations of ploughing, manuring, sowing, watering, weeding and hoeing; supervises making of channels for irrigation, preparing manure, grafting and budding of plants, harvesting, threshing, winnowing, etc.; looks after bagging, storing and transporting of produce; controls field staff; assists in preparation of cost and production statement, payment of wages, etc.; attends to any other tasks assigned to him.

4. Plantation worker

Performs a variety of tasks relating to propagation, cultivation and harvesting of plantation products, as for example:

(a) nursery worker: prepares beds in prescribed manner and germinates seeds, etc.; prunes, weeds out wild growth and performs related tasks;

(b) planting worker: prepares land for cultivation, digs holes for planting germinated seeds and plants shade trees to protect plants from heat;

(c) weeding worker: weeds out wild growth around plants using spade, sickle, knife, etc.;

(d) picker, plucker: picks ripe berries, leaves, cotton, etc. from plants by hand, cuts off protruding branches of bush using tipping knife and performs a variety of low-skilled tasks on plantation;

(e) tapper: cuts channels or grooves on trunk of trees in prescribed manner and gathers sap or juice.

Should be designated according to type of work done and type of plantation, as for example:

cotton plantation worker, sugar-cane plantation worker, vineyard worker, tea plantation worker. coffee plantation worker, rubber plantation worker, rubber tapper, tea garden pruner, palm juice tapper, tea picker, coffee picker, cotton picker, spice harvester, etc.

FORESTRY

5. Forest supervisor

Directly supervises and co-ordinates tree cultivation, conservation and harvesting operations and enforces safety and preservation regulations in forest:

supervises and directs seed harvesting, propagation, and cultivation of young trees in forest nursery, tree planting, thinning, pruning, spraying with insecticides and other pest and disease control activities, and execution of flood control and soil conservation projects; selects and marks trees for felling and inspects logging operations to ensure conformity with forest exploitation programme; inspects recreation areas in forest and advises visitors on recreation facilities and safety, sanitary and other regulations; enforces regulations concerning fire prevention and preservation of wildlife and vegetation in forest; investigates and reports on accidents, acts of vandalism, thefts and fires occurring in forest; checks areas to ensure that boundaries are correctly placed and maintained; supervises revenue collection at forest checking station and ensures that accounts are properly recorded.

6. Forestry worker

Performs a variety of tasks in the establishing and care of forest stands under the direction of the forest supervisor:

collects, prepares and stores tree seeds; cleans, ploughs, drains, irrigates, fertilises and otherwise prepares seed beds and afforestation areas; sows cones, acorns and tree seeds and raises seedlings; transplants seedlings in afforestation areas; sprays insecticide, builds fences and performs other tasks to protect trees against insects, diseases and predatory animals; prunes trees, thins out dense stands and removes damaged timber and excessive undergrowth; cuts fire lanes and keeps them clear.

LOGGING

7. Logger

Fells trees, saws them into logs and performs other logging tasks:

identifies tree to be felled, according to markings or other instructions and clears undergrowth; fells tree, using axe and powered or hand saw, trims branches and saws trunks into logs; selects, trims and tops anchor trees for log hauling, attaches hauling tackle and sets up winching equipment; fastens noose of winching or hauling cable about logs and performs other tasks in skidding or hauling them to transportation point.

8. Tree feller and bucker

Fells trees and saws them into logs, using axe and manual or powered saw, for timber or fire wood:

identifies tree to be felled, determines mode of felling (such as cutting through stem, digging out roots from earth, etc.) and direction in which it should fall; cuts undergrowth from around butt of tree and prepares bed for tree if necessary; climbs tree and lops off branches using axe, bill hook and hand saw; attaches ropes or cables to tree, and to anchor tree if necessary, to control direction of fall; makes V-shaped cut (undercut) in tree on side to which it should fall; makes saw cut (back cut) on opposite side to undercut and slightly above it; trims branches from felled tree and saws trunk into logs of required size; separates usable timber from fuel wood.

DEEP-SEA AND COASTAL FISHING

9. Deep-sea fisherman

Performs a variety of tasks in the catching, storing and unloading of fish caught in deep sea, usually working as fishing vessel crew member. Performs some or all of the following:

prepares nets, lines, other fishing gear and fish bait; catches fish by trawling nets and trolling lines, setting nets and lines and using other deep-sea fishing equipment; lands catch on deck, sorts, eviscerates and washes fish, ices or freezes fish and stows fish on vessel; washes down deck; maintains and repairs fishing equipment; handles equipment to unload fish from vessel; usually performs some duties in operation and maintenance of vessel.

10. Inshore (coastal) maritime fisherman

Performs a variety of tasks in the catching of fish in coastal waters:

prepares nets, traps, lines, other fishing gear and fish bait; catches fish by such methods as drawing lines or nets through water, pulling nets ashore, dredging, and using fishing traps and spears; maintains and repairs fishing equipment; unloads fish from vessel; usually performs some duties in the operation, cleaning and maintenance of the vessel.

COALMINING

11. Coalmining engineer

Undertakes research, technical advisory, consultancy and related works in the field of coalmining engineering, including preliminary surveys of deposits and undeveloped mines to plan their development and the examination of deposits and mines to determine whether operation would be economically feasible, and plans and directs the technical aspects of extracting coal from the earth by mining and the preparation of coal for distribution, and supervises all mining operations including mineral prospections:

plans and conducts research to advance basic mining engineering knowledge, to evaluate new techniques and theories, to evolve methods of mining best suited to character and size of deposits, to improve -mine safety and environmental conditions, to devise improved methods of winning coal, etc.; develops or adapts new or established principles to improve yield, quality, profitability and other aspects of mining extraction; decides on extraction methods and types of machinery and equipment to be used, and plans position, direction and extent of mine shafts, adits, drifts, open pits, etc., and of related developments such as water and power supplies, transport, coal treating plants, with regard to cost, location and extent of coal deposits, treating and distribution requirements and other relevant factors; supervises operation in treatment of minerals at mine; supervises rescue operations when required; maintains records and statistical data and prepares reports for government and other authorities; gives technical advice or acts as consultant in this field as required.

12. Miner

Extracts coal from underground coal mine:

hews coal with hand or pneumatic pick; drills holes in workface with hand or pneumatic drill; inserts, tamps and fires explosives; shovels dislodged mineral into mine cars or on to conveyor; pushes cars to haulageway; installs chute or staging, and wood or steel props, pillars and arches to support walls and roofs; extends car rails to workface.
13. Underground helper, loader

Performs a variety of low-skilled and routine manual tasks, requiring a minimum of training, little or no previous experience and mainly physical effort:

breaks up large lumps of coal with pick; loads coal into tubs or mine cars; loads tubs on tram lines; shovels stone and other debris into area from which coal has been removed.

CRUDE PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION
(ONSHORE OPERATIONS OR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS)

14. Petroleum and natural gas engineer

Undertakes research, technical advisory, consultancy or related work in the field of natural gas and/or oil-well engineering and plans, organises and supervises the extraction, storage, initial treatment and transportation of petroleum and natural gas:

engages in research to develop new and improved methods of gas and oil-well drilling and of extraction and storage of natural gas and oil to advance basic knowledge, to evaluate new theories and techniques, to improve safety factors, to devise and recommend new and improved methods of drilling and extraction, to determine need for new or modified tool designs, and for similar purposes; advises on technical matters relating to the extraction of petroleum and natural gas and to achieve economical and satisfactory progress; studies data from geological and geophysical surveys; plans and decides on, in consultation or co-operation with other specialists such as geologists, geophysicists and mechanical engineers, location and extent of drilling operations, types of drilling equipment including sea-bed platforms when appropriate and related surface development required, with regard to cost, location and extent of deposits, treating and distribution requirements, economic practicability of extraction and other factors; calculates reserves of petroleum and gas; organises and supervises drilling operations and directs testing of boreholes to determine pressures, temperatures, strata encountered and other factors; devises methods for bringing wells into production by controlling flow of oil or gas and treating oil to remove sediments and water; supervises operations and maintenance of producing wells and associated storage tanks and pipe transport system; compiles logs, production records and other data for each well and conducts special studies on subjects such as salt-water encroachment; initiates and supervises regulations regarding safety and fire protection.

15. Petroleum and natural gas extraction technician

Performs technical tasks, normally under direction and supervision of petroleum and natural gas engineer, contributory to the extraction, storage and transportation of petroleum and natural gas:

prepares drawings, estimates and work schedules, and otherwise assists in locating wells, planning drilling operations, calculating data relating to project at hand and estimating materials and costs; gives technical guidance to drilling teams and other workers; tests boreholes to determine pressures, temperatures, strata encountered and other factors; assists in bringing wells into production by controlling flow of oil or gas and treating oil to remove sediment and water; assists in technical supervision of operations of producing wells and associated storage tanks and pipe transport system and keeps production and other records; assists in research to develop new and improved or better adapted methods of extraction; applies knowledge of theory and practices of petroleum and natural gas extraction to recognise and solve problems arising.

16. Supervisor or general foreman

Supervises production activities at well-drilling site and controls and co-ordinates the activities of workers at the site engaged in various well-drilling, well-pulling, cementing and related occupations, and liaises between workers and senior staff:

studies production programme and estimates manpower requirements; interprets specifications, blueprints, plans, job orders and determines sequence of operations; estimates supplies, equipment and materials needed and makes requisitions; establishes or adjusts work procedures to meet production schedules and assigns duties to workers; co-ordinates work of unit at well-drilling site with that of other units; recommends measures to improve production methods, equipment performance and quality of output, and suggests changes in working conditions and use of equipment to increase efficiency; analyses and resolves work problems; trains workers; interprets enterprise policies to workers and enforces safety regulations; supervises and co-ordinates activities of subordinate foremen; recommends or initiates personnel action, such as promotions, transfers, discharges and disciplinary measures; maintains necessary records and registers and submits prescribed returns.

17. Derrickman

Sets up and operates derrick equipment and pumps to circulate mud through drill hole:

sets up pulley supports at top of derrick and strings cables through pulleys and blocks, to provide means of raising and lowering pipes and cables; guides and attaches and detaches lifting equipment to lower or raise sections of drill pipe into or out of bore hole; weighs clay and mixes drilling mud to required consistency or ensures that it is so mixed; controls pumps to circulate mud through drill pipe and bore hole while drilling progresses, to flush it out or cool drill bit; assists in other rigging tasks and dismantling equipment; maintains and repairs pulleys, blocks and cables; relieves and assists in supervising other members of drilling crew; cleans splashed oil from derrick floor.

OTHER MINING AND QUARRYING

18. Miner

Extracts ores or other solid minerals from underground or surface mine:

hews minerals with hand or pneumatic pick; drills holes in workface with hand or pneumatic drill; inserts, tamps and fires explosives; shovels dislodged mineral into mine cars or on to conveyor; pushes cars to haulageway; installs chute or staging, and wood or steel props, pillars and arches to support walls and roofs; extends car rails to workface.

Should be designated according to type of mine and type of ore or mineral mined.

19. Quarryman

Extracts granite, limestone or other kinds of stone from quarry:

drills holes in quarry workface with hand or pneumatic drill; inserts, tamps and fires explosives; breaks large blocks of dislodged stone into smaller pieces; attaches hoisting cable-hooks or slings to remove dislodged stone from quarry.

Should be designated according to type of stone quarried.

SLAUGHTERING, PREPARING AND PRESERVING MEAT

20. Butcher

Bones and cuts up carcasses, and prepares carcass sections for processing or in standard meat cuts:

splits carcass by sawing and cleaving; removes edible offal and washes meat; cuts, saws and chops carcass into sections for processing or standard or smaller meat cuts, as required.

21. Packer

(a) Hand packer

Packs meat products by hand in containers such as bags, sacks, bottles, jars, cans, tubes, cartons or boxes for shipment or storage:

examines container and product and rejects any which are defective or otherwise unsuitable; places container on filling platform or conveyor, or positions it under feed spout or chute; places or pours product into container, or operates hand-controlled mechanism to release specified quantity from feed spout; where appropriate, wraps product in paper, cellophane or other protective material, or packs product with cushioning material or preserving agent; checks and adjusts weight of filled containers or quantity of items; closes and seals packages, and affixes identification tag or label or records identifying information on container.

(b) Machine packer

Operates a machine to carry out one or more tasks in wrapping, packing, bottling or canning meat products for shipment or storage:

prepares and starts machine and watches functioning to detect faults; stops machine, remedies faults or reports them to supervisor; makes minor adjustments to machine setting and guides; ensures that packets, cans, bottles or other containers are filled according to instructions; removes damaged articles and faulty containers; may feed machine, conveyor or machine hopper with products to be wrapped or packed and with packing materials such as paper and glue; may place container in machine and press button or pull lever to fill it; may keep records of products packed.

MANUFACTURE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

22. Dairy product processor

Performs one or more tasks in the preparation of various dairy products, setting up and operating equipment to process milk, cream, and other dairy products, following specified methods and formulae:

connects pipes between vats and processing equipment; assembles fittings, valves and other parts to equipment to prepare for operation; turns valves to pump sterilising solution and line water through pipes and equipment; starts pumps and equipment, observes temperature and pressure gauges, and opens valves to allow milk to flow into homogeniser to produce specified emulsion and through filter to remove sediment; turns valves to admit steam and water into pipes to pasteurise milk and circulate refrigerant through coils to cool milk; develops bacterial culture for use in making butter, buttermilk, cheese and other products; operates equipment to separate cream from milk and make butter; curdles milk and converts milk into cheese; records specified time, temperature, pressure and volume readings.

GRAIN MILL PRODUCTS

23. Grain miller

Operates machinery for processing grain (including rice):

ascertains from instructions quantities and types of grain to be broken down and/or mixed together or husked; adjusts as necessary and starts machinery, such as cleaners, conveyors, grinders, hammer mills and sifters, and flow of grain to processing equipment; observes milling process, keeping grain moving at regular rate by tapping clogged spouts with mallet and by adjusting gates; examines product periodically and adjusts grinder as necessary; makes blend of flour, meal or feed by regulating flow of ingredients in specified proportions from bins to blending machines; closes feeder valves and allows machine to empty before changing over to different grain or mixture; takes samples for laboratory analysis; keeps records of materials received and products milled.

MANUFACTURE OF BAKERY PRODUCTS

24. Baker (ovenman)

Sets and operates oven to bake bread or flour confectionery products:

arranges sequence of baking to ensure that most economical use is made of ovens; heats ovens to required temperature; loads or supervises loading of ovens when correct temperature has been reached; regulates and controls heat and humidity in oven by observing gauges, turning valves and other methods; notes colour of products during baking to ensure uniformity of finished products; removes or supervises removal of baked goods from ovens and places then, on tiered racks for cooling.

SPINNING, WEAVING AND FINISHING TEXTILES

25. Thread and yarn spinner

Operates machine to spin thread and yarn from roving on to spindles or other output packages:

loads spinning machine with bobbins or packages of roving; threads ends from input packages through guides and drawing rollers and loops them on to spindles or other output packages; starts machine, observes operation to detect nearly empty input packages, or broken strands of roving or yarn, and repairs them by hand; replaces exhausted input packages without stopping machine; cleans and oils machine.

26. Loom, fixer, tuner

Sets, inspects and repairs looms of various kinds:

prepares looms for weaving new pattern or different quality of product, for example, by setting harness, reed and dropwires into position and tying warp ends to tail ends of cloth beam and places weft bobbins in shuttle; operates loom manually to check movements of heald, shuttle and reel and makes necessary adjustments; hands loom over to weaver for operation; inspects loom periodically and keeps in good working order; makes repairs such as putting in new harness straps and replacing worn-out shuttles; replaces empty warp beams with full ones.

27. Cloth weaver (machine)

Operates and tends battery of looms to weave yarn into cloth:

starts set-up loom and observes weaving operation; varies warp tension as required; stops loom when necessary if breakages or other faults occur; mends broken thread by hand and rethreads if necessary; removes defects in cloth by cutting and pulling out filling; keeps weft shuttles supplied with yarn; cuts off or marks fabric, or inserts pick of contrasting colour when requisite yardage has been woven; reports mechanical faults to loom fixer.

28. Labourer

Performs various manual tasks, requiring a minimum of training and little or no previous experience. Performs one or more of the following tasks:

conveys materials, equipment, goods, etc. about work areas and stacks materials or goods; opens bales, crates or other containers manually; assists in setting up machinery and equipment; prepares equipment such as tools for use; assists in loading materials on to or into and unloading finished or processed materials or products from machinery and equipment; provides general assistance to craftsmen, operators, machine minders, etc. as required; washes or cleans finished articles or crates or similar containers manually; paints or fixes identification markings, labels, etc. on products or containers; clears machine blockages and cleans machinery, equipment and tools; loads and unloads vehicles, trucks, trolleys, etc.; keeps work areas tidy and clears waste materials and spillages; disposes of waste materials by bailing, tipping on waste heap, burning, etc.; performs routine tasks in maintenance of premises and grounds such as rough painting, washing windows, etc.

MANUFACTURE OF WEARING APPAREL (EXCEPT FOOTWEAR)

29. Garment cutter

Cuts single or multiple layers of material (other than leather) into parts for making up into clothing, using hand or machine cutting tools or devices:

builds up layers of material as required, affixing marked-out pattern to top layer; switches on hand cutter or band knife; guides shears or hand cutter around each pattern piece, or along line marked on lay, or manipulates. lay against blade of band knife to cut out garment parts; cuts notches in edges of parts to mark them for assembly; removes cut material.

30. Sewing-machine operator

Operates standard or specialised single- or multiple-needle sewing machine to sew fabric in making garments:

secures suitable needle in machine as necessary; places bobbins or spools of thread in required colours on machine; passes thread through machine guides, tensioners and eye of machine needle; adjusts machine to adapt tension and type, depth and size of stitch according to sewing work to be done; where appropriate, places together fabric parts to be joined; positions fabric to be sewn under or opposite needle and lowers pressure foot on to material; starts machine and guides material under needle, regulating sewing speed as required; gathers, hems, reinforces or adds decorative trim to articles; removes fabric when sewing is completed and cuts thread where necessary; replaces empty bobbins and damaged needles.

MANUFACTURE OF LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS (EXCEPT FOOTWEAR)

31. Tanner

Treats hides or skins in solutions to convert them into leather:

fills container with tanning solution and weighed quantity of hides; Starts machine to agitate solution; stops machine after specified time or when process is judged complete; takes sample piece of leather and boils it in water to test completeness of tanning; continues tanning process if necessary; removes hides when tanning is completed.

32. Leather goods maker

Makes, by hand and machine, a variety of products consisting mainly of real or artificial leather, such as handbags, wallets, luggage, brief cases, belting, footballs and leather novelties:

selects or prepares patterns and cuts materials; thins edges of leather and shapes parts; bores and punches holes; glues and sews parts together; rivets, trims and smoothes parts where necessary; stains, polishes, embosses or otherwise treats leather; attaches metal parts and fittings.

MANUFACTURE OF FOOTWEAR

33. Clicker cutter (machine)

Operates press machine which cuts out upper parts of footwear:

lays material on table of machine; selects cutting dies; arranges dies on material to cut it economically and avoid weaknesses; cuts out shoe part by lowering press on to dies; removes cut-out parts from material.

34. Laster

Joins upper parts of footwear to insole in preparation for sewing together:

places and tacks insole on last; fixes last in holding jig; pulls upper on to last by machine to give it required shape; checks alignment of toe and heel of upper; fixes bottom of upper in pincers of machine which hold it evenly and closely over edge of insole; fixes folded part of upper to insole by operating tacking device or by spreading an adhesive solution along edge of insole.

35. Shoe sewer (machine)

Operates hand-, foot- or power-driven machine to sew together parts of footwear:

places spool of special thread on holding device and in shuttle of machine; passes thread through machine guides or eye of needle; adjusts tension of thread; arranges parts in position for sewing and guides parts under needle; replaces empty spools and broken needles.

SAWMILLS, PLANING AND OTHER WOOD MILLS

36. Sawmill sawyer

Sets and operates one or more different kinds of sawing machines or uses hand saws in a sawmill to cut or trim lumber and wood to specified dimensions on a repetitive basis:

works to cutting list or other instructions; positions and secures log or planks on machine carriage; sets machine to cut wood to specifications, adjusting guides and controls according to speed and quality of cut; operates machine to saw logs into planks, planks into boards of lesser thicknesses or squared logs into boards; cuts planks and boards to standard lengths and straightens and squares their edges and ends; examines planks and boards for defects and removes faulty pieces; offloads or directs offloading of cut planks and boards; determines when saw blades need replacing.

37. Veneer cutter

Sets and operates rotary lathe, slicer or other woodworking machine to peel or slice veneer from logs:

directs placing of log on machine and clamps into position; sets cutting mechanism to cut veneer to specified thickness; operates machine to cut veneer; checks thickness of veneer and adjusts cutting mechanism as necessary; throughout peeling or slicing operation, checks log visually for knots; stops machine to cut out knots or faulty wood with chisel or axe; stops machine when log has been reduced to unworkable size; removes sliced veneer manually from machine.

38. Plywood press operator

Operates hotplate press to bond glue-coated veneer sheets together to form plywood of specified thickness:

sets temperature, pressure and timing controls of press according to requirements and releases steam to heat plates; assembles required number of glue-coated sheets in correct order to form pack(s); loads veneer sheets and caul boards into press; operates controls to bring plates of press together and subject veneer sheets to heat and pressure to cure, glue and convert them into plywood; unloads plywood from press and checks that sheets have been properly bonded; cleans glue from caul boards.

MANUFACTURE OF WOODEN FURNITURE AND FIXTURES

39. Furniture upholsterer

Installs, arranges and secures springs, padding and covering material to furniture frames:

makes base for seat with canvas bands and burlap; secures metal springs, sponge rubber, animal hair, cotton felt and other padding to seat, back, arms and other parts of furniture; attaches burlap or canvas to base of furniture to conceal springs, and fits castors, where necessary; takes measurements and cuts covering material to required shapes; sews parts together or sends to sewer; aligns material, stretches it over parts to be covered and nails, staples, sews or cements into position; attaches braiding, bindings, skirts or other trimming material to upholstered forms using glue, staples, nails or tacks, or pins them into position for hand sewer.

40. Cabinetmaker

Makes completely wooden articles such as cabinets and furniture, using woodworking machines and power or hand tools:

ascertains job requirements from drawings of articles to be made and other specifications; selects wood and marks off outline of parts on wood, and cuts out parts; shapes parts by operations such as cutting, planing and turning, using a variety of woodworking tools and machines; trims joints to make them fit together snugly; finishes inside portions which cannot be worked after assembly; glues joints, fits parts together and clamps them until glue is dry; drives nails, dowels or screws through joints to reinforce them; fits subassemblies and other parts together to form completed unit; finishes article, attaching trim, applying veneer, stain or polish and installing hardware such as hinges, locks and drawer pulls; sharpens own tools.

41. Wooden furniture finisher

Finishes or refinishes surface of wooden furniture and fittings:

prepares surface by filling cracks and nicks and smoothing it; applies coats of stain, sealer, filler, lacquer, varnish or other finishing materials to surface; smooths surface between coats and rubs down final coat to desired finish; repairs defects in the finish of completed article; removes old finish before refinishing wooden furniture and fittings.

MANUFACTURE OF PULP, PAPER AND PAPERBOARD

42. Wood grinder

Operates power-driven machine to grind logs or wood blocks into fibre used in making paper pulp:

adjusts distance between grinding stones in machine and sets pressure of hydraulic pistons; throws wood into grinder pocket and activates hydraulic piston that presses wood against revolving grindstones, or tends conveyor that feeds wood to machine hopper; sets water sprays to cool grindstones and control consistency of pulp; turns hand wheel to regulate flow of pulp from discharge end of machine; observes temperature gauges or colour of pulp for evidence of burns caused by faulty grindstones; loosens jammed blocks or logs; notifies supervisor if repair is necessary; performs cleaning tasks as directed.

43. Paper-making-machine operator (wet end)

Operates section of machine in which wet pulp is formed into paper:

examines job specifications; starts and regulates flow of stuff from storage chest through rotary screens to machine; adds water as necessary to thin stuff; sets machine controls for width, thickness and moisture content of paper required; removes dirt and other foreign matter from screens and regulates flow of stuff to wire-mesh belt; co-ordinates speed of belt and flow of stuff to obtain paper of desired weight; threads formed paper between press rolls; ensures that formed web for consolidation into paper is fed correctly through to drying section of machine; feels pulp web to test texture and examines samples of finished paper, and adjusts controls as necessary; marks defective portions of paper for removal at reel; cleans machine and ancillary equipment and replaces worn or damaged wire-mesh belts or moulds, felts and rollers, or directs performance of these two tasks; supervises machine crew drying, sizing, calendering, winding and cutting paper.

PRINTING, PUBLISHING AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

44. Journalist

Collects, reports and comments on news and other items of current interest for publication in newspapers and periodicals:

interviews persons, attends public events or undertakes special assignments, investigates events of public interest and seeks information from other sources concerning his subject of interest; records observations for subsequent report or story; writes report or story and commentaries, interpreting the facts to give a personal assessment of their causes, consequences and likely implications; where applicable, submits material to editorial department for approval and preparation for publication in newspaper or magazine; usually specialises in a particular field of affairs.

45. Stenographer-typist

Takes direct dictation of correspondence, reports and other papers by hand or machine, and transcribes dictated materials into typewritten form:

records in shorthand, by hand or shorthand-writing machine, dictated letters, memoranda, reports or other matter; types matter from shorthand notes, written drafts, recordings on dictating machine or other sources and cuts stencils; uses manual, electric or electronic typewriter, or word-processor; may perform limited clerical duties.

46. Office clerk

Performs a variety of clerical tasks, such as those which follow, depending on nature and size of office in which employed:

examines incoming mail referred to him for attention and assembles information needed for preparation of reply; composes letters in reply to correspondence or telephone inquiries, or to obtain information, and initiates other routine correspondence; calculates and checks factors for costing, estimating, valuing or other purposes; collates sales records and gives instructions for preparation of invoices and other documents in connection with sales and deliveries; receives and interviews clients, employees, sales personnel or other callers, and arranges appointments and directs inquiries to appropriate persons or departments; keeps and balances accounts of financial transactions and prepares statements of accounts; computes time, output or other factors and calculates earnings or payments due; receives payments of accounts and issues receipts; receives, counts, and pays out cash; prepares loss or damage reports and insurance claims; prepares, issues, receives or checks forms and documents in connection with the administration of national, regional or local government legislation or other matters; determines material and production requirements; prepares operational scheduled orders or received orders for material and merchandise; files vouchers, receipts, letters and other documents; arranges for the transport of freight and prepares relevant documents; deals with complaints; compiles statistical information; records issues of stationery and equipment to staff and maintains records as required.

47. Hand compositor

Sets type by hand for printing:

examines manuscript or other specifications to determine length of lines and type to be used; adjusts guide in composing stick to required length of lines; reads copy, selects appropriate type and arranges it in stick and inserts spaces to form lines; places leads between lines; slides lines on to galley when composing stick is full or when set-up is complete and passes galley on for proof printing; examines corrected proof, makes necessary alterations to type or set-up and sends to press man; distributes type into proper compartments after use.

48. Machine compositor

Sets and arranges printing type by machine:

(a) Linotype operator

operates keyboard of machine which selects corresponding matrices of letters from magazines, assembles them in lines and automatically casts a strip of type for each line.

(b) Monotype keyboard operator

Operates keyboard of machine to convert text in typescript or other manuscript form into justified or unjustified perforated strips of paper for use in monotype casting machine.

(c) Computer keyboard operator

Operates keyboard to feed typescript or manuscript copy and details of printing specifications directly on to computer which produces tape to control the operation of a typecasting machine.

(d) Typewriter keyboard operator

Operates keyboard of composing typewriter to produce a camera-ready master copy of printing matter or data tape to be used as input to producing camera-ready copy or to a computer.

(e) Filmsetter keyboard operator

Operates keyboard to feed typescript or manuscript copy and details of printing specifications directly into filmsetting machine to reproduce type characters on film or sensitised paper.

49. Printing pressman

Sets and operates various types of machines which print on paper and other materials:

(a) Cylinder pressman

Sets and operates a printing machine in which separate sheets of paper are pressed by means of cylinder on inked type locked on flat surface.

(b) Platen pressman

Sets and operates platen-type Printing press to Produce printed material.

(c) Rotary pressman

Sets and operates a printing machine in which a continuous roll of paper is printed by means of stereotyped plates locked in revolving cylinder.

(d) Offset pressman

Sets and operates a machine in which separate sheets of paper or other material are printed by roller which obtains an ink impression from engraved plate.

(e) Direct lithographic pressman

Sets and operates machine in which sheets of paper or other materials are printed directly from prepared lithographic stone.

(f) Rotogravure pressman

Sets and operates machine which prints on continuous roll of paper from photo-engraved plates or cylinders upon which subject-matter is etched below the surface.

General

Cleans inking rollers and replaces them in machine; fills ink fountains and regulates flow of ink on inking rollers; locks type or printing plates in position; loads paper rolls on machine and threads paper through machine guides and rollers, and sets and adjusts paper guides; runs off proof sheets or makes trial run and checks legibility and uniformity; makes adjustments until evenly printed copy is obtained; starts press and ensures that printing proceeds correctly and that folding and cutting proceeds correctly.

50. Bookbinder (machine)

Performs series of tasks in binding books with machines:

sews together signatures to form book bodies with sewing machine; compresses sewn-together signatures of book bodies to uniform thickness with smashing machine; trims books to size with powered cutting machine; gilds or marbles edges of pages as necessary; inserts each book into machine which rounds back and forms grooves at back edge in which covers are hinged; stacks and aligns books and glues super-lining and back-lining on each book; glues cover to end sheets and places books in press to dry.

51. Labourer

Performs one or more manual tasks requiring a minimum of training, little or no previous experience and mainly physical effort:

conveys materials, equipment, goods, etc. about work areas and stacks materials or goods; opens bales, crates or other containers manually; assists in setting up machinery or equipment; assists in loading materials on to or into and unloading finished or processed materials or products from machinery or equipment; provides general assistance to craftsmen, operators, machinery minders, etc. as required; washes or cleans parts, components or finished articles or crates or similar containers manually; clears machine blockages and cleans machinery, equipment and tools; loads and unloads vehicles, trucks, trolleys, etc.; keeps work areas tidy and clears waste materials and spillages; disposes of waste materials by baling, tipping on waste heap, burning, etc.; performs routine tasks in the maintenance of premises such as rough painting, washing windows, etc.

MANUFACTURE OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

52.Chemical engineer

Carries out research on chemical engineering problems and develops and advises on processes (or devises new and improved processes) for manufacturing on a commercial scale chemicals and products such as synthetic fibres, synthetic rubbers, plastics, etc., applying principles of technology, of chemistry, physics and engineering; designs chemical plant and plans and supervises its construction, installation, operation, maintenance and repair:

studies existing processes or equipment used and their efficiency and production levels; engages in research relating to chemical and physical transformation of matter on a commercial scale to develop new or improved processes and manufacturing plant in co-operation with other specialists; plans and carries out tests and projects, including definition of problems and the choice of methodology; directs and supervises construction, installation and operation of plant and equipment, and inspects and tests completed work to ensure compliance with specifications and safety standards; advises employer, associates and clients on chemical engineering matters; specifies sequence of physical transformation operations; formulates technical and scientific problems and states goals and programmes for-testing; carries out operational research and work dealing with quality technique; collaborates with chemists and other specialists in application for procedures of quality control of raw materials and products; develops analytical methods; investigates faults and failures occurring in processes; plans and supervises maintenance and repair of processing plant.

53. Chemistry technician

Performs auxiliary technical tasks, normally under direction and supervision of chemists and chemical engineers, in connection with pure research into chemical phenomena or applied chemical research and development work:

participates in the design and supervision of construction, setting up, operation and repair of chemical plants and equipment; applies certain norms for testing and controlling apparatus and chemical plants; conducts, under supervision, chemical and physical laboratory tests and experiments, and makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of materials, in such fields as organic, inorganic, physical and analytical chemistry, for purposes such as investigating chemical phenomena, determining chemical composition, properties, purity and other characteristics of substances, discovering and developing new chemical products, new uses for existing products or new methods of production, maintaining the health and safety standards, or controlling industrial processes; tests analytical methods described in literature and modifies them in order to make them adaptable to current problems; sets up equipment for experiments and weighs, measures, mixes, filters and otherwise prepares materials; applies knowledge of principles of chemistry to recognise, study and suggest solutions to problems encountered; tests samples of manufactured products to ensure conformity with specifications; records observations and conclusions of tests, analyses and experiments, makes calculations, prepares charts and writes reports; helps in preparation of the production programme.

54. Supervisor or general foreman

Supervises the production activities of a distinct unit within an establishment concerned with the production of synthetic resins, plastic materials and man-made fibres, except glass, and controls and co-ordinates activities of workers in this unit engaged in various occupations:

studies production programme and estimates manpower requirements; interprets specifications and job orders and determines sequence of operations; estimates supplies and materials needed and makes requisitions; establishes or adjusts work procedures to meet production schedules and assigns duties to workers; co-ordinates work of unit with that of other production units within the establishment; recommends measures to improve production methods, equipment performance and quality of product and suggests changes in working conditions and use of equipment to increase efficiency; analyses and resolves work problems; interprets enterprise policy to workers and enforces safety regulations; supervises and co-ordinates the activities of subordinate foremen; recommends or initiates personnel action, such as promotion, transfers, discharges and disciplinary measures.

55. Mixing- and blending-machine operator

Operates machine in which solids or liquids used in chemical and related processes are mixed or blended according to formula to make chemical products:

loads prescribed quantities of materials into machine container by hand or by operating valves, pumps or other mechanical loaders; starts machine agitator to mix materials; adds further ingredients to mixture as required; stops machine when mixing process is completed; removes mixture from machine container by hand or by operating valves or pumps; prepares machine for fresh run.

56. Labourer

Performs one or more manual tasks requiring a minimum of training, little or no previous experience and mainly physical effort:

conveys materials, equipment, goods, etc. about work areas and stacks materials or goods; opens bales, crates or other containers manually; assists in setting up machinery or equipment; assists in loading materials on to or into and unloading finished or processed materials or products from machinery or equipment; provides general assistance to craftsmen, operators, machinery minders, etc. as required; washes or cleans parts, components or finished articles or crates or similar containers manually; clears machine blockages and cleans machinery, equipment and tools; loads and unloads vehicles, trucks, trolleys, etc.; keeps work areas tidy and clears waste materials and spillages; disposes of waste materials by baling, tipping on waste heap, burning, etc.; performs routine tasks in-the-maintenance of premises such as rough painting, washing windows, etc.

MANUFACTURE OF OTHER CHEMICAL PRODUCTS

57. Mixing- and blending-machine operator

Operates machine in which solids or liquids used in chemical and related processes are mixed or blended according to formula to make chemical products:

loads prescribed quantities of materials into machine container by hand or by operating valves, pumps or other mechanical loaders; starts machine agitator to mix materials; adds further ingredients to mixture as required; stops machine when mixing process is completed; removes mixture from machine container by hand or by operating valves or pumps; prepares machine for fresh run.

58. Packer

(a) Hand packer

Fills containers such as ampoules, tubes, bottles, carboys, drums, cans, barrels, bags or sacks by hand with chemical, pharmaceutical or allied products for shipment or storage:

examines container and product and rejects any which are defective or otherwise unsuitable; places or pours into container by hand using weighing or measuring aid, or positions container under feed spout or chute and operates hand-controlled mechanism to fill container with specified quantity of product; caps or seals containers by hand, machine or by heat application; complies with safety regulations when handling dangerous or poisonous substances; affixes identification tag or label or records identifying information on container.

(b) Machine packer

Operates a machine to carry out one or more tasks in wrapping, packing or bottling chemical, pharmaceutical or allied products for shipment or storage:

prepares and starts machine and watches functioning to detect faults; stops machine, remedies faults or reports them to supervisor; makes minor adjustments to machine setting and guides; ensures that packets, cans, bottles or other containers are filled according to instructions; removes damaged products and faulty containers; may feed machine, conveyor or machine hopper with products to be wrapped or packed and with packing materials such as paper and glue; may place container in machine and press button or pull lever to fill it; may keep records of products packed.

59. Labourer

Performs one or more manual tasks requiring a minimum of training, little or no previous experience and mainly physical effort:

conveys materials, equipment, goods, etc. about work areas and stacks materials or goods; opens bales, crates or other containers manually; assists in setting up machinery or equipment; assists in loading materials on to or into and unloading finished or processed materials or products from machinery or equipment; provides general assistance to craftsmen, operators, machinery minders, etc. as required; washes or cleans parts, components or finished articles or crates or similar containers manually; clears machine blockages and cleans machinery, equipment and tools; loads and unloads vehicles, trucks, trolleys, etc.; keeps work areas tidy and clears waste materials and spillages; disposes of waste materials by baling, tipping on waste heap, burning, etc.; performs routine tasks in the maintenance of premises such as rough painting, washing windows, etc.

PETROLEUM REFINERIES

60. Controlman

Operates control panel to regulate temperature, pressure, rate of flow and tank level in petroleum refining, processing and treating units and petrochemical units:

observes instruments and meters to verify that specified conditions are maintained and records readings; adjusts switches, valves and levers on control panel to regulate flows, temperatures, pressures, vacuum, catalyst and other processing conditions; reports defective equipment to stillman.

IRON AND STEEL BASIC INDUSTRIES

61. Occupational health nurse

Provides professional nursing services and health information for employees in workplaces:

gives first-aid treatment at place of employment for injuries and illnesses and arranges for further medical care, if necessary; renews surgical dressings and gives other routine treatment for minor injuries or disorders at workplace or patient's home; gives inoculations; assists with health examinations; keeps records of persons treated and prepares reports for use in compensation claims and for other purposes; informs employer concerning health problems among the employees; provides health and hygiene information to workers.

62. Blast furnaceman (ore smelting)

Controls the operation of a blast furnace to smelt iron ore for the production of ferrous metal:

orders furnace to be charged with raw materials such as coke, flux and ore in alternate layers; operates battery of stoves to supply heated air blast to blast furnace; observes colour of molten metal and reads pyrometer to determine temperature and adjusts controls to regulate temperature or pressure; determines when melt is ready, directs positioning of ladles and taps furnace by breaking clay plug of tap hole; opens gates and shutters to direct flow of molten metal or slag along runners into ladle; plugs tap hole after ladles are filled, using mud gun and relines runners with refractory material; obtains samples of molten metal for laboratory analysis or estimates and records percentage of sulphur and silicon in iron by observing sample of iron as it cools and by observing slag formation; directs helpers performing the more routine furnace-tending tasks; ensures and supervises the observance of appropriate safety and health regulations or instructions by workers.

63. Hot-roller (steel)

Operates rolling mill to shape hot steel ingots into blooms, slabs, billets or sheet bars for further processing, or to shape heated semi-finished steel pieces into bars, angles, ties, rails, sheets or other finished forms:

interprets written or verbal instructions and determines procedure of work, and calculates required space between rolls for each stand, rolls' tension, rolling speed, number of passes, etc.; sets or directs setting of rolls and mill and conveyor speeds, and regulation of water sprays as required; gives signal for rolling to start and observes operation of mill, inspects products during rolling, and directs adjustment of controls as necessary; examines and measures finished products for conformity with specifications; directs cleaning and changing of rolls; supervises workers who assist in the operation and mechanical control of rolling mills; ensures and supervises the observance of appropriate safety and health regulations or instructions by workers.

64. Metal melter

Operates furnace to melt ferrous metals prior to casting or further processing, and performs related tasks:

(a) Metal-melting furnaceman (except Cupola)

Directs charging of electric-arc, crucible, reverbatory or other furnace (except Cupola); fires furnace or switches on current and adjusts furnace controls to build up and maintain required temperature; ascertains temperature from colour of melt and by using pyrometer; determines when melt is ready for casting and taps or tilts furnace to run or pour metal into ladle; directs helpers performing the more routine furnace-tending tasks; ensures and supervises the observance of appropriate safety and health regulations or instructions by workers.

(b) Cupola furnaceman

Lines bottom and lower parts of furnace with sand; prepares and lights initial charge (coke and kindling wood) on bottom of furnace; orders furnace to be charged with metal, coke and flux in alternate layers; starts blower supplying air blast; observes molten metal dripping into base of furnace; withdraws clay plug from tap hole, when required level has been reached, to allow molten metal to run into ladle; blocks tap hole with clay plug to stop flow when ladle is full; opens bottom doors of furnace to allow remaining slag, metal and coke to drop on to floor; chips off cinders and slag from furnace walls and repairs burned parts of wall lining with a mixture of fireclay and water; directs helpers performing the more routine furnace-tending activities; ensures and supervises the observance of appropriate safety and health regulations or instructions by workers.

65. Labourer

Performs one or more manual tasks requiring a minimum of training, little or no previous experience and mainly physical effort; assists skilled workers generally:

conveys materials, equipment, goods, etc. about work areas and stacks materials or goods; opens bales, crates or other containers manually; assists in setting up machinery or equipment; assists in loading materials on to or into and unloading finished or processed materials or products from machinery or equipment; provides general assistance to craftsmen, operators, machinery minders, etc. as required; washes or cleans parts, components or finished articles or crates or similar containers manually; clears machine blockages and cleans machinery, equipment and tools; loads and unloads vehicles, trucks, trolleys, etc.; keeps work areas tidy and clears waste materials and spillages; disposes of waste materials by baling, tipping on waste heap, burning, etc.; performs routine tasks in the maintenance of premises such as rough painting, washing windows, etc.; observes safety and health regulations or instructions.

MANUFACTURE OF METAL PRODUCTS (EXCEPT MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT)

66. Metalworking machine setter

Sets up various types of power-driven precision metalworking machines, such as lathes, milling, boring, drilling and grinding machines to be operated or attended by other workers:

examines drawings and other specifications and determines sequence and method of operations to be carried out; measures and marks necessary reference points; fastens cutting or grinding tool(s) in position on machine, using chucks, jigs and other fixtures as required, adjusts machine table, guides, stops and other controls to ensure tool(s) will cut or grind metal according to specifications; selects speed for rotary or other movement of work piece or of cutting tool(s); starts and operates machine to obtain sample; checks work with measuring instruments and makes necessary adjustments to machine setting; hands machine over to operator when it is set, with instructions for operation; changes tools and resets machine for operator as necessary.

67. Welder

Welds metal parts by means of oxy-acetylene, other gas flame or electric arc:

ascertains job requirements from drawings and other specifications; examines parts to be welded to determine best method to use; places parts (work pieces) in position; selects torch nozzle and attaches it to blow-pipe, or selects electrode and inserts it into portable holder; lights torch and adjusts flame by regulating flow of gases, or connects welding unit cable to work piece and switches on power supply; heats parts until they begin to melt and fuses them by applying molten metal from a welding rod, or holds electrode a short distance from work piece to form electric arc, adjusting voltage or amperage as necessary; runs flame and welding rod along joint, or guides electrode along line of weld to deposit metal from electrode and fuse parts together and regulates supply of electricity to control deposit of metal; allows metal to cool. cleans and smooths welded parts, examines weld visually and rectifies any defects.

MANUFACTURE OF MACHINERY (EXCEPT ELECTRICAL)

68. Bench moulder (metal)

Makes sand moulds by hand on a bench for small metal castings:

sets half pattern in bottom half of moulding box (drag) on bench, packs fine sand or loam around pattern face, fills box with coarser sand and rams it in with hand tools; turns box over, removes base and dusts surface of drag with parting powder; fits and secures other half of pattern to first half, fixes top half of moulding box (cope) to drag and repeats sand packing, filling and ramming to complete mould; separates drag and cope, removes pattern and repairs damaged mould surfaces; cuts channels for pouring metal into mould; dries mould halves and applies refractory bonding solution as required; positions cores in mould, rejoins and secures drag and cope, fixes channel funnel and lines it with protective sand.

69. Machinery fitter-assembler

Fits and assembles fabricated parts and/or subassemblies in the manufacture of machinery, engines and other metal apparatus (except precision instruments and electrical equipment) to form complete units and/or secondary subassemblies at bench, conveyor line or on the floor:

examines drawings and material list to obtain parts specifications; plans sequence of operations; examines parts for flaws and checks accuracy of fit using gauges, micrometers and other measuring instruments; chisels, files, scrapes and does other supplementary tooling to ensure correct fit, using equipment such as drilling and grinding machines; lays out, positions, aligns and assembles parts using hand tools such as wrenches, spanners, screwdrivers, pliers, holding fixtures and other tools and work aids; tests assembled article.

70. Labourer

Performs one or more manual tasks requiring a minimum of training, little or no previous experience and mainly physical effort:

conveys materials, equipment, goods, etc. about work areas and stacks materials or goods; opens bales, crates or other containers manually; assists in setting up machinery or equipment; assists in loading materials on to or into and unloading finished or processed materials or products from machinery or equipment; provides general assistance to craftsmen, operators, machinery minders, etc. as required; washes or cleans parts, components or finished articles or crates or similar containers manually; clears machine blockages and cleans machinery, equipment and tools; loads and unloads vehicles, trucks, trolleys, etc.; keeps work areas tidy and clears waste materials and spillages; disposes of waste materials by baling, tipping on waste heap, burning, etc. ; performs routine tasks in the maintenance of premises such as rough painting, washing windows, etc.

MANUFACTURE OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES

71. Electronics draughtsman

Prepares clear, complete and accurate working plans and detailed drawings based on sketches, general or partial drafts and specifications for engineering purposes and for manufacture and installation of electronic machinery, equipment and systems:

examines design specifications, sketches, calculations and other data provided by design engineer to ascertain requirements; prepares working drawings, diagrams and detailed specifications for the manufacture, installation, wiring operation and repair of electronic machinery, equipment, and systems; calculates or makes necessary supplementary calculations of dimensions, surfaces, volumes, weights of components and other factors to ascertain general requirements; correlates the calculated dimensions of parts of the product or structure, and consults designer regarding design adjustments that appear necessary; makes final detail and assembly drawings; makes schedules, rearranges and makes adjustments to standard symbols; prepares assembly documents in the form of fitting drawings and connection charts; makes charts and diagrams of representation of statistical and other data; draws so-called "pattern cards", which includes the use of certain electronic components with regard to the length of wires, shielding, assembly; considers material to be used and most effective and economical means of manufacture and examines the possibility of incorporating standard components, parts and materials; checks that all safety factors have been incorporated in design, consulting with design engineer as necessary; prepares general arrangement drawings to scale showing the position, size, shape and inter-relationships of components; checks design for feasibility of construction; inserts on drawing production guidance and information such as number of wire, type of insulation, datum points and centre holes, heat treatment required and location of lubrication points, etc.

72. Electronics engineering technician

Gives direct general technical assistance to engineers engaged in research, development, design, application, feasibility studies, liaison or similar activities, and performs a variety of functions such as estimating, constructing, repairing, testing, installing, modifying, operating, designing, or maintaining a variety of production or experimental types of complex electronic equipment, utilising knowledge of electronic theory, physicalsciences and mathematics, normally under the direction and supervision of professional engineers or scientists:

sets up apparatus and equipment for experimental work, makes tests, takes readings, performs calculations, and records, analyses and interprets data; assists in research and development work concerning electronic devices and equipment such as radio, television and radar equipment, telecommunications installations and automatic control and guidance systems; prepares estimates of quantities and costs of materials and labour required for manufacture and installation of electronic equipment, assists the engineers in operational work, construction and planning and preparing work schedules; exercises technical supervision and control, and gives technical guidance to workers engaged in manufacture, installation, repair and maintenance of electronic equipment; inspects and tests completed work to ensure compliance with specifications and safety standards; implements procedures for the maintenance of standards of quality, accuracy and reliability in engineering work; inspects and regulates functioning of installed electrical plant employed for manufacturing process, or other purposes; diagnoses and corrects faults beyond the competence of staff carrying out routine maintenance; undertakes tests of complex engineering systems and constructions; writes technical reports and develops charts, graphs and schematics to describe and illustrate systems operating characteristics. malfunctions, deviations from design specification and functional limitations.

73. Electronics fitter

Fits, adjusts, installs and repairs parts, assemblies or subassemblies in the manufacture of radio, television and other communications equipment and apparatus in factory, workshop or place of use:

examines drawings, wiring diagrams and other specifications; determines sequence and method of required operations; checks parts for accuracy of fit and, where necessary, files, chisels, scrapes and does other supplementary tooling; fits parts together or mounts them on chassis or panels, using hand tools, and checks alignment; selects wire, cuts to required length and strips insulation from ends; installs and connects wiring, to appropriate terminals or connectors, by soldering, crimping, brazing or bolting where necessary to complete equipment circuit; tests, calibrates and adjusts equipment; diagnoses faults with aid of testing instruments; dismantles equipment, if necessary, and replaces faulty parts and wiring; fits microelectronic components and tests built-in software.

74. Electronic equipment assembler

Assembles previously prepared parts in the batch or mass production assembly of electronic goods or components:

assembles parts, or positions and fastens parts, or mounts them on chassis with nuts and bolts, rivets, screws or similar fasteners, or by soldering or other methods using tools such as hand or powered screwdrivers, pliers, spanners or soldering irons; installs and connects wiring, mainly by soldering.

SHIPBUILDING AND REPAIRING

75. Ship plater

Shapes and fits structural steel plates of ships under construction or repair:

examines drawings and other specifications; marks steel plates to guide shaping and fitting or uses ready-marked plate; cuts and bends plates and drills and punches holes in them, guided by markings or template; squares, bevels or scarfs edges of plates; fits plate in readiness for welding or riveting.

ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER

76. Power distribution and transmission engineer

Undertakes a variety of engineering activities such as research, design, feasibility studies, application studies, technical liaison and consultancy in the field of power transmission and distribution systems and equipment, and supervises the development, construction, maintenance and repair of those systems and equipment:

studies operating requirements for electric power distribution and transmission equipment and systems; advises employers, associates and clients on power distribution and transmission matters; consults with specialised electrical engineers, electronics, civil and mechanical engineers, physicists and industrial designers, as necessary; designs systems and equipment, prepares working drawings and specifications indicating materials to be used; surveys areas to determine installation of power lines and directs erection of distribution lines; estimates labour, material and other costs of manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance and repair; supervises installation, maintenance and repair of electrical equipment and checks completed work to ensure compliance with specifications and safety standards; undertakes activities in the field of co-ordination of generation and distribution of power between power stations, substations and users.

77. Office clerk

Performs a variety of clerical tasks, such as those which follow, depending on nature and size of office in which employed:

examines incoming mail referred to him for attention and assembles information needed for preparation of reply; composes letters in reply to correspondence or telephone inquiries, or to obtain information, and initiates other routine correspondence; calculates and checks factors for costing, estimating, valuing or other purposes; collates sales records and gives instructions for preparation of invoices and other documents in connection with sales and deliveries; receives and interviews clients, employees, sales personnel or other callers, and arranges appointments and directs inquiries to appropriate persons or departments; keeps and balances accounts of financial transactions and prepares statements of accounts; computes time, output or other factors and calculates earnings or payments due; receives payments of accounts and issues receipts; receives, counts and pays out cash; prepares loss or damage reports and insurance claims; prepares, issues, receives or checks forms and documents in connection with the administration of national, regional or local government legislation or other matters; determines material and production requirements; prepares operational scheduled orders or received orders for material and merchandise; files vouchers, receipts, letters and other documents, arranges for the transport of freight and prepares relevant documents; deals with complaints; compiles statistical information; records issues of stationery and equipment to staff and maintains records as required.

78. Electric power lineman

Installs, maintains and repairs overhead high-tension or low-tension power lines conducting electricity between generating stations, substations and consumers:

assists with the erection of wooden poles or steel towers to carry overhead lines; connects and anchors stay wires and braces; climbs poles and towers and connects and installs equipment such as insulators, lightning arresters, cross bars, transformers, fuse gear, cable boxes and aircraft warning lights at proper heights; installs and tests bonding and earthing systems; strings and draws cables through insulators fixed on cross bars and between towers, poles, and buildings, ensuring that proper slack is left in cables to avoid breakages under changing atmospheric conditions, and that lines give adequate clearance for trees, television antennae, construction of haystacks, etc.; joins cables by splicing and soldering; checks overhead lines in allotted section as necessary and maintains them in order for carrying electricity, by effecting repairs of defective lines, poles, towers and ancillary equipment as directed or as necessary.

79. Power-generating machinery operator

Operates equipment to produce electric power and control its distribution:

(a) Steam power-plant operator

Controls and operates boilers, turbines, generators and auxiliary equipment at electricity generating plant:

ascertains job requirements from operating instructions or from switchboard attendant; monitors control board, regulates equipment and adjusts controls connected with operation; controls operation of boiler and auxiliary equipment such as water and vacuum pumps, coal driers and pulverisers, steam condensers and soot blowers; adjusts boiler controls to provide steam for varying turbine loads; synchronises incoming generating units with units in operation; monitors gauges to determine effect of generator loading on related equipment; notes malfunctions of equipment, instruments and controls on log sheet; periodically records instrument readings; prepares reports as required.

(b) Hydroelectric station operator

Controls electrical generating units and related mechanical and hydraulic equipment at hydroelectric generating station:

operates switchboard and manually operates controls to control water wheels, generators and auxiliary equipment; regulates power output of the different generating units according to the demand for power; operates feeder switchboard to control distribution of electric power over feeder circuits between generating station and substations; notifies reservoir keeper when additional water pressure is needed to drive water wheels at satisfactory speed.

(c) Power-reactor operator

Controls nuclear reactor to produce steam power to drive electricity-generating equipment or other machinery:

adjusts controls to start and shut down reactor and to regulate flux level, reactor period, coolant temperature and rate of flow, control rod positions and other control elements that affect power level within reactor, following standard instructions and prescribed practices; communicates with other workers to co-ordinate operation of auxiliary equipment, including pumps, compressors, switchgears and water treatment systems; reports faulty equipment to foreman.

80. Labourer

Performs one or more manual tasks requiring a minimum of training, little or no previous experience and mainly physical effort:

conveys materials, equipment and goods, etc. about workplace and stacks materials and goods; opens bales, crates or other containers manually; assists in setting up machinery or equipment; assists in loading materials on to or into and unloading materials from machinery or equipment; provides general assistance to craftsmen, operators, machinery minders, etc. as required; washes or cleans parts, components or crates or similar containers manually; clears machine blockages and cleans machinery, equipment and tools; loads and unloads vehicles, trucks, trolleys, etc.; keeps work areas tidy and clears waste materials and spillages; disposes of waste materials by baling, tipping on waste heap, burning, etc.; performs routine tasks in the maintenance of premises such as rough painting, washing windows, etc.

CONSTRUCTION

81. Building electrician

Installs electrical wiring and related equipment in houses, industrial and commercial establishments and other buildings:

examines drawings and other specifications; positions and fixes distribution boards, fuse boxes, switches, light sockets and power points and connects to wiring; cuts, bends and installs conduit and draws wires through it or installs sheathed cable; connects wiring to source of electricity supply, tests for insulation, continuity or other defects and makes necessary adjustments; installs electrical fixtures and equipment such as water heaters, under-floor heating, electrical storage heater systems, time switches, illuminated signs and domestic appliances.

82. Plumber

Assembles and installs pipes, fittings and fixtures of drainage, heating, water supply and sanitary systems at building site:

ascertains job requirements from drawings and other specifications; locates and marks position of pipe and pipe connections and passage holes for pipes in walls and floors; cuts openings in walls and floors to accommodate pipes and pipe fittings; cuts, reams, threads and bends pipes as necessary; assembles and installs valves, pipe fittings and pipes composed of metals such as iron, steel, brass and lead and non-metals such as glass, vitrified clay and plastic; joins pipes and fittings using screws, bolts and couplings or by brazing and welding, etc.; caulks joints and tests them for leaks with air and water pressure gauges; installs assemblies and fixtures such as storage tanks, baths, toilets, taps and valves; repairs holes made in brickwork or concrete and painting affected by work; installs solar energy collectors and heat pumps.

83. Constructional steel erector

Performs various tasks in the erection of steel members and heavy plates for buildings, bridges and other structures (except ships):

examines drawings, site facilities and other specifications to determine kind of equipment and manpower required; erects ladders, scaffolding or working cage, and rigs hoisting equipment or erects jib crane for raising and placing metal work; directs hoist operator or crane driver to raise and position girders and other metal parts; checks alignment of metal parts using spirit level and plumb rule and repositions as necessary; drills or enlarges holes and smooths rough surfaces using pneumatic or electric tools; bolts, rivets or welds metal parts together or arranges for riveting or welding.

84. Building painter

Applies coats of paint, varnish, shellac and similar materials to exterior and interior surfaces, trimmings and fixtures of buildings to protect and decorate them:

selects varnish or other coating material, or mixes paint according to colour and other characteristics required by stirring together proportions of pigment, oil, thinning and drying substances; erects scaffolding or positions ladders; removes old paint with scraper, wire brush, blow torch or liquid paint remover; cleans surfaces with brush, cloth or abrasive material and patches cracks and holes with putty, plastic wood or other filler, and applies sealing solution to knots in wood; where appropriate, applies masking tape to areas not to be coated; applies undercoat and one or more other coats of paint or other materials to surface with a brush, roller or spray-gun; rubs down coated surfaces with abrasive block or paper between coats as necessary.

85. Bricklayer (construction)

Lays bricks, hollow tiles and similar building blocks (except stone) to construct walls, partitions, arches, interior fireplaces and chimneys, and other structures:

examines plans and other specifications of structure to be erected, and plans set-out of building blocks; spreads mortar with trowel on foundation and building blocks and lays them in rows, designs and shapes, leaving openings for windows, doors, etc.; taps block with trowel to align it and embed it firmly in mortar, allowing specified thickness of mortar join; checks vertical and horizontal alignment of structure with level and plumb line as work progresses; when necessary, cuts brick to shape using hammer and chisel or trowel.

86. Reinforced concreter

Builds reinforced concrete structures and structural parts such as pillars, beams, floors and walls:

studies plans and specifications; assembles or constructs shuttering and fixes it in position; cuts, shapes, assembles and fixes reinforcing rods or mesh in shuttering; prepares concrete by hand or in concrete mixer, or signals to helper to deliver ready- mixed concrete; pours concrete into shuttering, distributing and tamping it or settling it with vibrating machine; levels and smooths surface of concrete; removes shuttering when concrete is dry and smooths rough edges.

87. Cement finisher

Finishes surfaces of concrete structures and smooths surfaces of freshly poured concrete sections:

cuts ridges, bumps and projecting wires from concrete surface with chisel and hammer; patches holes and broken corners by wetting them, spreading cement mortar into them and smoothing surface with trowel or float; removes blemishes and uneven parts of surface by wetting or applying liquid mixture of sand, cement and water and rubbing with abrasive block; finishes surface by wiping with damp brush; smooths and shapes surface of freshly poured concrete surfaces with straight-edge and float for fine finish and edging tool to shape corners.

88. Construction carpenter

Cuts out, assembles and installs wooden frameworks of buildings, flooring and other heavy-framed woodwork, such as pouring chutes and scaffolding, at building sites:

works from plans, sketches or instructions received; selects wood and other materials to be used; marks out reference points according to pattern or plan to facilitate cutting and shaping; cuts and shapes wood by hand or using machine tools, performing such operations as sawing, grooving, planing and sanding; assembles wooden parts, using glue, screws, nails and other means and fits metal rods, hinges, etc. to woodwork where necessary; erects prepared work pieces such as rafters, wooden floors, partitions, windows, door frames, staircases and scaffolding; checks accuracy of work with square, rule and spirit level; maintains and sharpens own tools.

89. Plasterer

Applies one or more coats of plaster to interior walls and ceilings of buildings to produce a finished surface:

fixes laths or insulating material to surfaces prior to plastering; applies first coat of plaster to surface with trowel, levels and smooths it; scratches surface to provide bond for second coat and shapes plaster border along sides of surface to provide guide for second coat; spreads second coat between borders, levelling it with rod and smoothing it with darby; applies finishing coat by spreading thin, uniform coat of white finishing plaster over second coat, smooths surface with trowel and finishes corners and angles with angle float; carries out interior ornamental plastering and plasters outside surfaces of buildings.

90. Labourer

Assists building and civil engineering craftsmen in the performance of their tasks on construction site or project. Performs one or more manual tasks requiring a minimum of training, little or no previous experience and mainly physical effort:

loads materials, equipment and tools on to and unloads from vehicles; transports materials and equipment to and from work areas using wheelbarrow, driving dumper or hoist, or secures load to be moved by crane driver; digs trenches, foundations and other excavations using pick and shovel or powered hand equipment; lays and levels hard core to form foundation for concrete; mixes concrete to specified consistency manually or operates or assists in operating mixing machines; assists with erection of ladders, scaffolding and working platforms; cleans equipment and tools; performs other manual tasks as directed by foreman.

WHOLESALE TRADE - GROCERY

91. Stenographer-typist

Takes direct dictation of correspondence, reports and other papers by hand or machine, and transcribes dictated materials into typewritten form:

records in shorthand, by hand or shorthand-writing machine, dictated letters, memoranda, reports or other matter; types matter from shorthand notes, written drafts, recordings on dictating machine or other sources and cuts stencils; uses manual, electric or electronic typewriter, or word-processor; may perform limited clerical duties.

92. Stock records clerk

Maintains stock records of an enterprise, verifies issues, estimates needs and requisitions new stocks, checks or evaluates stock for the reconciliation of stock with accounting records:

examines delivery and issue vouchers and makes necessary entries in records; compares entries in accounting records with relevant documents to check validity of entries; calculates stocks held in various departments, examines sales or other records and estimates future needs; takes periodic inventory or keeps perpetual inventory; requests or orders supplies when needed, makes up necessary reports; plans the stock and/or inventory work from a technical and time-related point of view; participates in decisions regarding methods, resources, and the organisation of inventory and stock-keeping.

93. Salesperson

Sells goods in a wholesale establishment to retailers and large-scale consumers:

talks to customers on sales floor, ascertaining from them the type of goods desired; advises on range of goods available and shows samples or catalogue illustrations or products to prospective buyers, explains their merits, characteristics and quality and emphasises their saleable features; arranges demonstration of goods if necessary; where appropriate, weighs, measures out or selects goods from stock and quotes prices and credit and discount terms; takes orders, prepares sales slip or invoice and passes them to appropriate section for action; assists wholesale dealer in stock-taking and other matters connected with running of wholesale establishment.

RETAIL TRADE - GROCERY

94. Book-keeper

Keeps, classifies, computes and balances a set of records in which day-to-day accounts of financial transactions of establishment are summarised or keeps one section of a set of financial records:

receives bills, vouchers and other papers concerning cash transactions; verifies accuracy of figures, calculations, and postings pertaining to business transactions recorded by other workers, inspects supporting documents; makes and checks entries of transactions in chronological order in appropriate records; makes calculations and totals ledgers at regular intervals; handles and examines the account coding; closes and balances accounts; compiles material in preparation for intermittent and annual balancing of the books; compiles reports at specified intervals to show receipts, payments, balances of accounts owing to or by the undertaking and other financial information; prepares extracts and supplies details of accounts as required; performs a variety of other tasks related to book-keeping.

95. Cash desk cashier

Receives payments from customers and gives change in respect of sales and performs closely related clerical tasks:

itemises customer's purchases, checks total on bill presented at cash desk or totals amount due, collects cash, gives change and issues receipts or tickets for purchases, as appropriate; as necessary, debits customers' accounts in respect of purchases; pays out cash against written orders or credit notes and obtains receipts; keeps daily records of amounts received and paid and reconciles cash balance with records; maintains other records in respect of cash transactions as directed; may use electronic aids to perform tasks (such as laser scanners or direct debit cards).

96. Salesperson

Sells goods in a shop or similar retail trade establishment:

handles sales transactions; ascertains from customer the nature, quality and price range of product required; advises on range of goods available, assists customer in choice by demonstrating and describing characteristics of products available; where appropriate, weighs, measures out or selects goods from stock, packs and arranges delivery of purchases; replenishes or arranges goods on display stands, shelves or counters; calculates cost and prepares sales slip or invoice.

RESTAURANTS AND HOTELS

97. Hotel receptionist

Receives and registers guests at hotels and similar establishments, allocates accommodation and performs a variety of services for them on arrival, departure and during their stay:

controls advance bookings, makes reservations and keeps records of rooms allocated; receives and registers guests on arrival, ascertains their requirements and assigns rooms; provides information on hotel facilities and services, tourist and other local services and amenities; transmits incoming mail and messages for guests; notifies hotel staff concerned of dates of arrival and departure of guests; keeps records, prepares statements for guests and collects payment; arranges for clearance of baggage and departure.

98. Cook

Prepares all kinds of hot and cold meals, snacks, pastries, etc. for consumption in hotels, restaurants and other catering facilities:

arranges for advance requisition of the necessary raw materials for the preparation of different types of dishes; checks quantity and quality of goods delivered to him; participates in menu planning and developing recipes; prepares different kinds of dishes by using the various cooking techniques; arranges dishes for service; exercises quality and cost control; observes hygiene and safety standards; Supervises cleaning of kitchen equipment and utensils.

99. Waiter

Serves food and beverages in hotels, restaurants and other catering facilities:

prepares tables with linen, china, cutlery, glasses, condiment holders, flowers and other decorations; presents menu and takes orders from customers; assists and advises customers in selecting meals and drink; serves food and beverages at the table, by using various types of service; clears table, removing dirty plates, glasses, cutlery, etc.; presents bills to customers and receives payment.

100. Room attendant or chambermaid

Cleans and services guest rooms in hotels and other lodging establishments:

cleans floors, furniture, bathrooms and toilets of guest rooms; removes litter and waste from guest rooms; makes beds and changes linen; replenishes supplies of soap, toilet paper, towels, stationery and other guests' supplies; arranges for laundry and dry-cleaning services at the guests' request; answers guests' summons; undertakes the evening checks of guest rooms; may clean and service common guest areas.

RAILWAY TRANSPORT

101. Ticket seller (cash desk cashier)

Issues tickets for travel facilities from ticket-issuing office, receives cash in payment and gives change to clients:

ascertains type of ticket(s) required, selects ticket(s). checks amounts receivable, collects cash, gives change and issues ticket(s); keeps daily records of cash received and tickets sold and reconciles cash balance with records; deals with inquiries from passengers and other railway transport users in train stations and gives such information as schedules, departures and arrivals of trains.

102. Railway services supervisor

Supervises and co-ordinates one or more of the service activities of the traffic department of a railway undertaking:

supervises, directly or through subordinates, and co-ordinates the activities of workers engaged in passenger and goods traffic handling, such as those operating and controlling equipment used to facilitate the movement of people or goods, and those engaged in manning of trains, allocation of rolling stock, make-up and break-up of trains, preparation of operating schedules or other operational services; conducts investigations of users' requirements, prepares reports on operational efficiency and makes proposals for future development for the information of management; ensures that safety regulations are in force.

103. Railway passenger train guard

Takes charge of passenger train during the journey, including supervision and co-ordination of rail transport crews, and is responsible for its movement and safety:

ensures that rail trains are moved according to train orders or other instructions, and takes precautions for safety of passengers; directs activities of crews; examines signalling and lighting equipment on train; supervises switching of coaches and loading or unloading of parcels and small items of freight; signals engine driver to start or stop; keeps records of items loaded or unloaded and of coach numbers making up train; takes appropriate action in case of emergencies or accidents; gives information to passengers about train rules, train stops, connections and timetables; submits reports at termination of each run or shift.

104. Railway vehicle loader

Loads and unloads goods, material or equipment carried in railway wagons:

loads goods, materials or equipment on to wagons by hand, using hand truck, skids, bars, jacks and similar equipment; stows articles to form a compact load and to avoid damage in transit and facilitate unloading; covers load-and/or secures with ropes as required; unloads goods, etc. from wagons manually, or by using lifting equipment; stacks unloaded goods, etc. for removal to storage area, or transfers goods, etc. to storage area manually by loading on conveyor or using hand or powered trucks; checks goods, etc. against invoices or consignment notes.

105. Railway engine-driver

Drives steam, electric or diesel-electric engine to haul passenger or freight trains:

takes charge of train from shunting driver; supervises and directs activities of engine crew; inspects engine at beginning and end of each run for operational efficiency; lubricates mechanism and makes minor repairs and adjustments during run; receives and studies route schedule, track conditions and timetable; starts train when signalled by guard or other authorised person; drives engine along scheduled routes, manipulates controls, handles, brakes and accelerators as necessary to regulate speed; observes signals and watches for track hazards; maintains arrival and departure of train at station to scheduled timetable, for loading and unloading passengers and freight, and for coupling and decoupling wagons and carriages; exchanges signals with guard after every start to ensure his presence on train; fills up necessary forms for detailing major defects and required repairs on completion of journey.

106. Railway steam-engine fireman

Fires and attends to boiler of steam locomotive for the transport of passengers and freight:

checks before commencement of journey and replenishes during run supplies, such as sand (to aid traction), fuel and water, to ensure safe and efficient operation during run; manipulates valves to control flow of oil fuel to burner or feeds coal into firebox with hand shovel-or mechanical stoker; maintains steam pressure and water at required levels; inspects locomotive to detect worn or damaged parts, ensures correct operation of engine lubricator and checks safety equipment; observes track to detect obstacles and checks train as it goes around curves to detect dragging equipment and smoking journal boxes; assists driver in observing signals and following train orders and schedules; oils and cleans engine parts.

107. Railway signalman

Controls flow of railway traffic over section of line within his jurisdiction by operating signals and switches from control tower or signal box:

reads switching orders and schedules of inbound and outbound traffic to ascertain time trains will enter or leave yard or line section, sequence of movements and tracks on which trains are to be routed; either moves switches on electrically controlled panel or moves levers on mechanically controlled equipment to set appropriate traffic signals and to activate track switches that regulate traffic in accordance with safety regulations; receives and sends train orders and information about train movements by telephone or telegraph; records time of trains passing through line section.

PASSENGER TRANSPORT BY ROAD

108. Road transport services supervisor

Supervises and co-ordinates one or more of the service activities of the traffic department of a road passenger transport undertaking:

supervises, directly or through subordinates, and co-ordinates the activities of workers engaged in route planning and scheduling of passenger vehicles, allocation of vehicles and drivers according to operating requirements, provision of terminal facilities, authorisation of departure of vehicles, cleaning and servicing of vehicles or other operational services; conducts investigation of users' requirements, prepares reports on operational efficiency and makes proposals for future development for the information of management.

109. Bus conductor

Collects fares, issues tickets, controls passengers and supervises safety and comfort of passengers on buses:

collects fares and issues tickets; signals to driver to stop when passengers wish to alight from or board bus, and signals again when safe to pull away; observes regulations concerning number of passengers carried and carriage of animals and parcels; announces stops and opens and closes doors; controls movement of passengers on bus and ensures observance of regulations concerning their safety and comfort; co-operates with driver in maintaining time schedules; completes way-bill at scheduled points of route to show the time and number of tickets used; keeps simple records, such as of trips, tickets issued, fares collected and hours on duty; takes charge of property found on vehicles; gives schedule and route information to passengers.

110. Automobile mechanic

Repairs, services and overhauls mechanical parts of motor buses to keep them in good running order:

examines and tests vehicle to ascertain nature, extent and location of defects, or ascertains job requirements from work sheets, technical manuals or other specifications; plans work, using charts and technical manuals; dismantles partially or completely engine, transmission, differential or other parts requiring attention, using hoist, jack, hand tools and other devices; repairs or replaces parts 'such as pistons, rods, gears, valves. bearings, breaker points or gaskets and accessories such as spark plugs; relines and adjusts brakes, solders leaks in radiator, rebushes steering mechanism and carries out other repairs; tunes motor by adjusting ignition, carburettor, valves and timing mechanism; lubricates joints, tightens loose parts and checks levels of fluids in clutch, brake and power-steering reservoirs, of electrolyte in battery and of coolant in radiator, and replenishes as required; recharges battery as necessary; drains oil from engine sump, renews oil filter and fills sump with new oil; oils carburettor dampers, dynamo bearings, water pump and door locks and hinges; checks and reports on condition of tyres; changes position of wheels, checks balance of wheels and tyre pressures and adjusts as necessary; checks lighting system and replaces faulty bulbs; tests repaired or serviced vehicle in workshop or on road, and makes necessary adjustments to attain desired standard.

111. Motor bus driver

Drives single- or double-deckered motor bus over fixed or predetermined route to transport local or long-distance passengers:

before commencing journey, ensures that vehicle is in good running order by checking fuel, oil, water, lights, brakes, etc., and that it is provided with tools and documents as required by law; drives vehicle over fixed or predetermined route with due regard to other traffic, traffic regulations, signals from conductor and time schedules; starts and stops bus at recognised stops or on request to allow passengers to board or alight; changes destination indicators as required; on one-man bus: collects fares, issues tickets, observes regulations concerning number of passengers carried and carriage of animals and parcels, completes way-bill, balances cash with way-bill at end of duty and hands cash and way-bill to cashier; assists passengers in an emergency; keeps records of defects noticed in bus.

FREIGHT TRANSPORT BY ROAD

112. Urban motor truck driver

Drives a motor truck to transport materials, merchandise, equipment, etc. to and from specified destinations over short distances (excluding roundsmen):

before journey, ensures that vehicle is in good running order, and checks oil, fuel, water, lights, brakes, etc. and that vehicle is provided with the necessary tools and documents as required by law; attends to, or assists with, loading and unloading; checks that load is evenly distributed, properly secured and protected where necessary; drives truck between depot and loading and unloading points, with due regard to other traffic, traffic regulations and time schedules; maintains record of journey times, mileage and hours worked.

113. Long-distance motor truck driver

Drives heavy motor truck, with or without trailer, to transport goods or liquids over long distances:

before journey, ensures that vehicle is in good running order, and checks oil, fuel, lights, brakes, water, etc. and that vehicle is provided with the necessary tools and documents as required by law; attends to, or assists with, loading and unloading; checks that load is evenly distributed, properly secured and protected where necessary; drives vehicle between depot and loading and unloading points, applying knowledge of long-distance commercial driving regulations and roads in area; maintains record of journey times, mileage and hours worked; where necessary, complies with customs and other regulations.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

114. Ship's chief engineer

In collaboration with the master, plans, co-ordinates and directs all operations of the engine-room department aboard ship:

takes complete charge of the operation, maintenance and repair of all electrical and mechanical machinery and equipment on board, including propulsion machinery, electrical generators, boilers, auxiliary and deck machinery, pumps and piping systems, ventilating systems, refrigeration systems, fresh-water distillation plant, and plumbing; supervises subordinate marine engineer officers and engine-room ratings; plans watch-keeping rota for engine-room personnel; requisitions fuel, water and engineering department equipment and stores; organises and supervises maintenance and repair operations; maintains logs and records of engineering department operations.

115. Ship's steward (passenger)

Takes care of general needs and comfort of ship's passengers, performing some or all of the following tasks:

receives passengers and conducts them to cabins; carries hand luggage; deals with passengers' general inquiries; keeps cabins in order, makes beds and berths and changes linen and towels; serves snacks and beverages to passengers between meals; serves meals in dining-room, state-rooms or cabins; assists passengers on deck or in lounge by arranging facilities and providing services as requested; cleans cabins, bathrooms, toilets, passage-ways, lounges, store-rooms, etc.; cleans and polishes tableware and is responsible for stores in his charge.

116. Able seaman

Serves as skilled deck-rating on seagoing vessels, performing various operation and maintenance duties, under the direction of the boatswain or ship's deck officer of the watch:

stands look-out for aids and hazards to navigation; steers vessel as directed; handles and makes fast mooring lines on board; lowers and raises lifeboats; takes charge of lifeboats and other small boats to and from shore; breaks out, rigs, overhauls and stows cargo-handling gear; splices wire rope and cordage; maintains lifeboats, life-saving gear, deck equipment and makes minor repairs; scrapes and cleans painted surfaces of vessel and repaints them; washes decks and maintains cleanliness of ship's hull, fittings, superstructure and cargo space; secures gangways and ladders.

SUPPORTING SERVICES TO MARITIME TRANSPORT

117. Dockworker

Loads and unloads ships' cargoes:

moves goods from warehouse to ship's side or in ship's hold, for loading or unloading, using winches, cranes, bogies, fork-lift trucks and other mechanical equipment as required; fixes slings, hooks, clamps or ropes to cargo ready for lifting; signals crane or winch driver when load is ready for lifting, or operates lifting machinery to move cargo from or into hold; guides cargo being moved; removes slings, hooks, clamps or ropes from cargo after loading or unloading; stows cargo in hold so as to conserve space and prevent damage in transit; sorts cargo at ship's side or in warehouse before and after loading or unloading; if handling bulk cargo such as grain, sugar or cement, connects specialised cargo-handling equipment to ship, oversees operation of such equipment, and disconnects equipment upon completion of cargo-handling operation.

AIR TRANSPORT (DOMESTIC OR INTERNATIONAL SERVICES)

118. Air transport pilot

Pilots or navigates aircraft to transport passengers, mail or freight:

studies flight plan and modifies it as necessary; discusses plan with flight deck crew and briefs them on possible emergencies; performs or supervises routine pre-flight checks of loading, fuel supplies, instruments, switches and other controls and orders changes, if necessary; discusses weather conditions for take-off, flight, landing and return with meteorologist; contacts control tower by radio to obtain take-off clearance and instructions; operates controls to manoeuvre aircraft on land and in the air and to take-off and land; during flight reads or directs reading of instruments to aid in control of aircraft and to detect irregularities; maintains flight log; uses navigational aids to direct the course of aircraft in flight; studies information received from area air traffic control; brings automatic pilot into operation as appropriate; exchanges information by radio with area air traffic control, ships and other aircraft; observes air traffic control and safety instructions; supervises activities of flight deck crew and delegates own functions as appropriate; lands aeroplane after guidance and clearance from approach procedural controller.

119. Flight operations officer

Co-ordinates flight planning and assists in monitoring of en-route operations:

co-ordinates planning of flights; assists in monitoring of en-route operations; applies company practices and policies, and advises pilots-in-command accordingly in all matters affecting diversions; shares responsibility with pilot-in-command for authorising flight departures.

120. Airline ground receptionist

Receives air travellers at airport, checks their tickets, and conducts them to the aircraft or baggage reclaim:

receives air travellers at airport, checks tickets, registers baggage, issues boarding cards, takes payment for excess baggage, and organises porter or other services where necessary; in co-operation with other airline staff, checks boarding cards before conducting passengers to aircraft for embarkation; ensures that correct number of passengers are on board aircraft; meets incoming aircraft, and conducts passengers to immigration control, baggage reclaim and customs, where appropriate; provides information where necessary on airline services, airport facilities, local services and amenities, etc.

121. Aircraft cabin attendant

Attends to the general needs, comfort and safety of aircraft passengers, performing some or all of the following tasks:

ensures that cabin is clean and tidy and that equipment is stowed securely; greets passengers boarding plane and guides them to their assigned seats; ensures safe storage of hand baggage; ensures that passenger seat belts are fastened and "no smoking" signs obeyed before take-off and landing; explains to passengers the controls for adjusting seats, seat lights and ventilators; distributes reading matter, answers questions about aircraft, its schedule and route and points out places of interest over which flight passes; explains use of safety equipment such as life-belts and oxygen masks; prepares and serves light refreshments; ensures pre-prepared meals and beverages are on board and serves them; sells drinks and cigarettes; observes passengers to detect signs of discomfort, administers minor medical aid as necessary and renders any other service contributing to passengers' comfort; assists passengers in emergencies according to established safety procedures; sees passengers safely off aircraft with their personal belongings.

122. Aircraft engine mechanic

Services, repairs and overhauls aircraft engines such as turbo-prop and piston engines, and other mechanical equipment of aircraft to ensure airworthiness:

ascertains job requirements from worksheets, technical manuals and other specifications; tests engine, using testing equipment; examines engine for cracked cylinders, oil leaks and other defects; dismantles, degreases, cleans and inspects parts for wear and other defects, and obtains replacement parts as necessary; removes engine from aircraft for overhaul by disconnecting and reconnecting tubing, wiring and accessories and fixations and installs replacements; consults manufacturers' manuals and airline's maintenance manuals for specifications and feasibility of repair or replaces defective parts; repairs, assembles and replaces parts; runs engine to test performance making necessary adjustments to carburettor and tunes it using special tools; inspects, services and repairs pneumatic and hydraulic systems; performs other duties to service aircraft mechanisms, including flushing crank-case, cleaning screens, greasing moving parts and checking brakes; cleans and examines fuel and air intakes, exhaust system, propellors, compressors and similar fittings and replaces defective items.

123. Aircraft loader

Loads and unloads aircraft cargo:

stows cargo according to size. weight, type and destination of goods, following general loading instructions, manually or using lifting equipment; removes cargo from aircraft manually or using lifting equipment; transfers cargo between aircraft and air terminal or storage area by loading on conveyor or using hand or powered trucks; checks goods, etc. against invoices or consignment notes.

SUPPORTING SERVICES TO AIR TRANSPORT

124. Air traffic controller

Maintains radio and/or radar contact with aircraft to clear it for landing and take-off at airport and controls aircraft in flight in the vicinity of airport or in a designated sector or airspace, to provide a safe, orderly and expeditious movement of air traffic in the controlled airspace:

controls movement of aircraft about to leave; studies display of aircraft location, and meteorological and navigational information prepared by air traffic control assistants; directs assistants to obtain additional information as necessary; transfers departing flights to surveillance of sector controller and takes over control of incoming flights; directs take-off and landing of aircraft at airports by issuing radio instructions to flying crafts within his range; controls and monitors airport lighting and other airport installations and issues instructions to pilots and ground staff in case of emergency; accepts flights entering his sector and advises pilots on altitude required to maintain separation of aircraft and gives warning of changes in weather conditions; contacts aircraft in flight between airports and gives instructions, advice and information; if in charge of a sector of airspace, transfers outgoing flights to next sector controller; examines and approves flight plans received from agents of companies using the airport; keeps record of messages received from aircraft.

125. Aircraft accident fire-fighter

Prevents or extinguishes fires in crashed or damaged aircraft and rescues crew and passengers:

sprays runway with chemical foam to reduce danger of explosion on impact when disabled aircraft are about to make emergency landings; drives to scene of emergency landing, crash or other accident and sprays aircraft with chemical agents to prevent or extinguish fire; rescues crew and passengers from aircraft, using flame-cutting and other special equipment as necessary, and renders first aid to injured; removes or neutralises dangerous cargoes on crashed or damaged aircraft; keeps equipment in state of readiness; connects and operates hosepipes, auxiliary pumps and other fire-extinguishing appliances.

COMMUNICATION

126. Post office counter clerck

Receives letters and parcels, receives and pays out cash, sells postage stamps, postal and money orders, and conducts other post office counter business, such as services for the transfer of banking of money and the payment of accounts or licence fees, and performs some or all of the following tasks:

weighs letters and parcels and computes amounts-due for postage, registration or insurance; sells items such as postage stamps, stamped envelopes and letter cards; receives and pays out cash in connection with money transfer, banking or other services operated by the postal service; keeps records of transactions; replenishes cash and stock reserves as necessary; balances cash, stamps and vouchers at the end of each period of duty.

127. Postman

Delivers mail along a regular route to private home and business establishments after sorting it according to streets and street numbers:

sorts mail and parcels for delivery along route in street and house-to-house delivery order; delivers letters, printed matter, small packages and other articles sent through the mail service both registered and unregistered; completes delivery forms where necessary; collects money for cash-on-delivery packages and obtains signatures for delivery of registered or other recorded mail; receives and records payments of carriage letters without sufficient postage paid, and money orders.

128. Telephone switchboard operator

Operates a telephone switchboard of public telephone exchange or a section thereof, dealing with local or long-distance calls:

observes switchboard for incoming calls and moves cords, switches or other devices to make contact with caller and person called, including inter-office calls to internal telephones and trunk or international calls; connects calls from subscribers direct to number required, or through other operators where number cannot be dialled or subscriber requests assistance or special facilities; routes long-distance calls or gives necessary instructions to other switchboard operators; observes and records charges for long-distance or other calls; gives advice on dialling and other special facilities available; reports faults.

BANKS

129. Accountant

Plans and administers accounting services and examines, analyses, interprets and evaluates accounting records for the purpose of giving advice on accountancy problems or preparing statements and installing or advising on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data:

plans, installs and advises on budgetary, accounts controlling and other accounting systems; assists in formulation of budget policies and advises on financial problems, management accountancy, administration and organisation; keeps record of all taxes, fees, etc. to be paid by the bank in which engaged and ensures that they are paid in time and kept up to date; prepares or reviews tax returns and contests claims before tax officials; plans and directs work of book-keepers, cashiers and book-keeping clerks and supervises workers undertaking routine phases of audit and all other accounting activities; advises on, organises and supervises the installation and implementation of manual, mechanised and computerised accounting, book-keeping and related systems; conducts financial investigations in matters such as suspected fraud, insolvency and bankruptcy; prepares and certifies financial statements for presentation to board of directors, executives, shareholders or statutory or other bodies; verifies balance sheets, prepares reports including those on profit forecasts and budgets; generally advises on other matters requiring accountancy knowledge.

130. Stenographer-typist

Takes direct dictation of correspondence, reports and other papers by hand or machine, and transcribes dictated materials into typewritten form:

records in shorthand, by hand or shorthand-writing machine, dictated letters, memoranda, reports or other matter; types matter from shorthand notes, written drafts, recordings on dictating machine or other sources and cuts stencils; uses manual, electric or electronic typewriter, or word-processor; may perform limited clerical duties.

131. Bank teller

Deals directly with client of a bank in respect of deposits and withdrawals and related matters, and records and balances money and negotiable instruments involved in various bank transactions:

receives and checks cash, cheques and other money orders and completes deposit slip, or enters details d deposit in customer's passbook or on documents to be transferred to accounts section; examines cheques or withdrawal slips presented for payment, where appropriate, verifies signature(s), customer's credentials or account balance and pays out the amount stated; exchanges money for equivalent amount in different denominations; replenishes cash reserve as necessary; makes debit entries in depositor's account card and draws up-to-date balance; keeps daily record of transactions; balances cash held at end of day against record of transactions; some of these functions may be performed with the assistance of electronic aids (such as computer terminals); may provide customers with information and advice on routine matters.

132. Book-keeping machine operator

Operates numeric keyboard machine to record details of financial transactions, make computations, and prepare payrolls, statements or other accounting records:

sets machine for required accounting process, selects required kind of book-keeping form or card and positions it in machine; examines cheques, withdrawal or deposit slips, receipts and other documents for correctness; sorts documents or listed items into chronological or other specified order where appropriate: operates keyboard and other machine controls to calculate and record data in appropriate places, to calculate and record totals, net amounts and other computations; operates manual or electronic accounting machine.

INSURANCE

133. Computer programmer

Prepares programmes to control automatic processing of data by computer:

studies programme intent, output requirements, nature and sources of raw input data, internal checks and other controls required, or, where available, uses specifications and instructions prepared by systems analyst; breaks down problems delineated by systems analyst into their simplest elements; prepares, from this breakdown, detailed logical flow charts and diagrams to establish the order in which data are to be processed, the points where decisions must be made between alternative courses of action, and the sequence of operations involved; converts flow charts and diagrams into computer programme (the list of instructions which control the operation of the computer) using programme language; converts the programme, or directs its conversion, into code form to derive machine-processable instructions suited to type of computer in use; conducts trial run with sample data to test validity and logic of programme; amends programme as necessary; compiles written instructions for computer-operating staff; corrects programme errors by such methods as altering programme steps and sequence; analyses, reviews and rewrites programmes to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements.

134. Stenographer-typist

Takes direct dictation of correspondence, reports and other papers by hand or machine, and transcribes dictated materials into typewritten form:

records in shorthand, by hand or shorthand-writing machine, dictated letters, memoranda, reports or other matter; types matter from shorthand notes, written drafts, recordings on dictating machine or other sources and cuts stencils; uses manual, electric or electronic typewriter, or word-processor; may perform limited clerical duties.

135. Card- and tape-punching machine operator

Operates alphabetic or numeric key-punch machine, photo-composing perforator machines, special data-preparation equipment to prepare data-processing input materials, and other data-type machines similar in operation to an electric typewriter to convert data to machine readable data or to a screen with the help of a punchcard device, a punched paper tape recorder, a key- to-disc coder, magnetic tape/coder/screen/terminal, or to verify the correctness of punching:

loads machine with decks of cards or reels of magnetic or paper tapes; sets machine for recording operation and moves switches to select appropriate functions; sorts documents or listed items into chronological or other specified order where appropriate; depresses keys to record data from source material in the form of perforations on card or tape or make magnetic impressions; observes machine to detect faulty operation; maintains record of work completed; handles programme punching, which includes the correction of clerical errors.

136. Insurance agent

Sells life, accident, endowment, fire, marine and other types of insurance:

compiles lists of prospective customers through business and social contacts and by checking business and professional directories; interviews prospective customers and determines their insurance needs and interests; plans and attempts to sell insurance policies by explaining insurance coverage most suitable to clients' requirements, in terms of risks covered, premium rates and benefits; quotes conditions of insurance, cost of premiums, bonus rates, cash and loan values and other benefits; initiates arrangements for medical examination, property inspection or other policy stipulations; informs company of clients' requests for payments of damages.

ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES

137. Clerk of works

Represents building architect on construction site to ensure contractor's compliance with design specifications and maintenance of desired standards of materials and workmanship:

confirms programme of work with contractor's agent and checks working levels, building lines, etc.; inspects work as project proceeds, making practical tests using knowledge of theory and practical techniques of building, to ensure compliance with design specifications and maintenance of desired standard of materials and workmanship, and adherence to terms of contract; keeps records of all excavations, foundation and other work which will be hidden by subsequent construction; reports to and consults architect on progress and standards of work and any deviations from original design; transmits instructions to site manager concerning work necessary to remedy defects discovered and advises him on any problems arising in relation to design specifications; records details of all agreed deviations from original, contract; ensures that work is completed on schedule.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

138. Computer programmer

Prepares programmes to control automatic processing of data by computer:

studies programme intent, output requirements, nature and sources of raw input data, internal checks and other controls required, or, where available, uses specifications and instructions prepared by systems analyst; breaks down problems delineated by systems analyst into their simplest elements; prepares, from this breakdown, detailed logical flow charts and diagrams to establish the order in which data are to be processed, the points where decisions must be made between alternative courses of action, and the sequence of operations involved; converts flow charts and diagrams into computer programme (the list of instructions which control the operation of the computer) using programme language; converts the programme, or directs its conversion, 'into code form to derive machine-processable instructions suited to type of computer in use; conducts trial run with sample data to test validity and logic of programme; amends programme as necessary; compiles written instructions for computer-operating staff; corrects programme errors by such methods as altering programme steps and sequence; analyses, reviews and rewrites programmes to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements.

139. Government executive official

(a) Central government executive official (middle level)

(b) Regional or provincial government executive official (middle level)

Acts as member of a section or division of a department, ministry or agency of (a) central or (b) regional or provincial government dealing with particular administrative and policy matters concerning such government services as domestic affairs, foreign affairs, defence, education, environment, health, social welfare, labour, social security, industry, agriculture, justice, finance, transport, communications, staffing and organisation of government services and other government functions; performs a variety of administrative and executive tasks under the general supervision of a higher level administrator or official:

consults higher level administrators or officials to obtain directions and indications of policy to be followed; implements policy decisions and the provisions of laws, rules and regulations and, as necessary, devises and advises on procedures for their implementation; participates in the preparation of legislation and of rules and administrative regulations to implement such legislation in matters for which the department, ministry or agency is competent; provides secretarial support for official committees, working parties, etc.; arranges internal meetings, prepares and circulates papers for discussion, takes minutes and ensures that follow-up action is taken; administers government grants and subsidies to agriculture, housing, health, social welfare, social security, and special categories of the population; inspects working conditions, including safety and health arrangements, in factories and other workplaces and enforces safety and health regulations; advises and informs on matters relating to the labour market, employment placement, vocational training and guidance; undertakes research not requiring specialised scientific, professional or technical qualifications, using such sources of information as government statistics, documents and files, publications and findings from academic circles and independent institutions and persons; makes comparative analyses and writes reports on specific policy questions; inspects, analyses and reports on the organisation of work and methods used in government services and makes proposals for changes.

(c) Local authority official (middle level)

As a member of the staff of a local authority, undertakes administrative and professional functions under the general supervision of a higher level administrator, in areas within the competence of local authority, such as general local administration, local tax assessment and collection, land registry, public housing, health and social welfare services, child care, school administration, construction, improvement and maintenance of roads and bridges, provision of electricity, gas and water supplies, security, maintenance of public amenities:

makes day-to-day decisions and enforces rules and regulations concerning the assessment and collection of local taxes, registration of births, marriages and deaths, and of electors, issues passports and other personal documents, registers aliens and issues residence permits, issues building permits and enforces municipal building codes and regulations; performs social work functions in public welfare programmes, services to families and the elderly, and child day-care facilities, services to the disabled, and medical social work services, determines the eligibility and needs of applicants and recipients for assistance and services; performs professional accounting work requiring knowledge of the theory and practice of recording, classification, examination and analysis of the data and records of financial transactions, examines a variety of accounting documents to verify accuracy of computations and to ascertain that all transactions are properly supported, in accordance with prescribed policies and procedures, and are classified and recorded according to acceptable accounting standards.

140. Stenographer-typist

Takes direct dictation of correspondence, reports and other papers by hand or machine, and transcribes dictated materials into typewritten form:

records in shorthand, by hand or shorthand-writing machine, dictated letters, memoranda, reports or, other matter; types matter from shorthand notes, written drafts, recordings on dictating machine or other sources and cuts stencils; uses manual, electric or electronic typewriter, or word-processor; may perform limited clerical duties.

141. Card- and tape-punching machine operator

Operates alphabetic or numeric key-punch machine, photo-composing perforating machines, special data-preparation equipment to prepare data-processing input materials, and other data-type machines similar in operation to an electric typewriter to convert data to machine readable data or to a screen with the help of a punchcard device, a punched paper tape recorder, a key- to-disc coder, magnetic tape/coder/screen/terminal, or to verify the correctness of punching:

loads machine with decks of cards or reels of magnetic or paper tapes; sets machine for recording operation and moves switches to select appropriate functions; sorts documents or listed items into chronological or other specified order where appropriate; depresses keys to record data from source material in the form of perforations on card or tape or make magnetic impressions; observes machine to detect faulty operation; maintains record of work completed; handles programme punching, which includes the correction of clerical errors.

142. Office clerk

Performs a variety of clerical tasks, such as those which follow, depending on nature and size of office in which employed:

examines incoming mail referred to him for attention and assembles information needed for preparation of reply; composes letters in reply to correspondence or telephone inquiries, or to obtain information, and initiates other routine correspondence; calculates and checks factors for costing, estimating, valuing or other purposes; collates sales records and gives instructions for preparation of invoices and other documents in connection with sales and deliveries; receives and interviews clients, employees, sales personnel or other callers, and arranges appointments and directs inquiries to appropriate persons or departments; keeps and balances accounts of financial transactions and prepares statements of accounts; computes time, output or other factors and calculates earnings or payments due; receives payments of accounts and issues receipts; receives, counts and pays out cash; prepares loss or damage reports and insurance claims; prepares, issues, receives or checks forms and documents in connection with the administration of national, regional or local government legislation or other matters; determines material and production requirements; prepares operational scheduled orders or received orders for material and merchandise; files vouchers, receipts, letters and other documents; arranges for the transport of freight and prepares relevant documents; deals with complaints; compiles statistical information; records issues of stationery and equipment to staff and maintains records as required.

143. Fire-fighter

Fights fires as a member of a public fire-fighting force, and rescues people and property:

rides on special fire-fighting vehicle or boat equipped with fire-fighting equipment, water pumps, rescue material, etc. to scene of fire on receipt of fire information; connects hose and directs jet of water or chemicals on fire, or uses portable fire-extinguisher in places not accessible with hose; demolishes parts of buildings or other structures as necessary, to clear passage and prevent further spread of fire; rescues trapped persons and administers artificial respiration and first aid to those overcome by heat or smoke; performs other services during emergencies where necessary, for example, rescuing people in danger as a result of flood or storm, and extricating persons or animals from places not easily accessible; maintains fire-fighting equipment in perfect working condition.

SANITARY SERVICES

144. Refuse collector

Collects refuse from business and private premises on designated route with municipality and dumps refuse from containers on to truck:

conveys rubbish and waste material in dustbins or other containers from premises to refuse vehicles manually or using trolley; empties rubbish and waste material into vehicle manually or secures bin to mechanical tipping device and operates controls to tip contents into vehicle; returns container to premises.

EDUCATION SERVICES

145. Mathematics teacher (third level)

Conducts courses of instruction at the third level of education (university or equivalent) in mathematics and related subjects:

prepares and delivers lectures to students in third-level courses in pure mathematics (including actuarial science, statistical theory, and similar academic subjects) and applied mathematics, as in design and functions of computers and operations-research analysis; conducts student classes and seminar sessions, stimulating and guiding discussion of selected topics in their field of study; illustrates lectures and other instruction, as appropriate, by means of demonstrations; acts as tutor to individual students, including graduate students, guiding and supervising their studies; advises students on academic and other matters; supervises and/or marks written and practical exercises undertaken by students; prepares or participates in preparing question papers for examinations and marks students' answers; serves as faculty member, concerned with such matters as curriculum revision, academic planning and degree requirements.

146. Teacher in languages and literature (third level)

Conducts courses of instruction at the third level of education (university or equivalent) in languages and literature:

prepares and delivers lectures to students in third-level courses in one or more subjects, such as one or more modern or ancient languages, literature, philology, journalism and related subjects; conducts student classes and seminar sessions, stimulating and guiding discussion of selected topics in their field of study; acts as tutor to individual students, including graduate students, guiding and supervising their studies and research; advises students on academic and other matters; supervises and/or marks written and oral exercises undertaken by students; prepares or participates in preparing question papers for examinations and marks students' answers; serves as faculty member, concerned with such matters as curriculum revision, academic planning and degree requirements.

147. Teacher in languages and literature (second level)

Instructs pupils in an establishment of secondary education in the field of classical or modern languages and literature:

prepares annual programmes of work in classical or modern languages and literature within limitations of specified or standard curriculum, for classes in secondary education establishment; gives instruction at the second level of education in the particular subject field, and conducts discussions; maintains discipline in class; illustrates instruction as appropriate; prepares, assigns and corrects exercises undertaken by pupils; sets, administers and marks tests and examinations; keeps pupils' work performance, attendance and other records, and reports on their progress to, and discusses with, head teacher and parents.

148. Mathematics teacher (second level)

Instructs pupils in an establishment of secondary education in the field of mathematics and related subjects:

prepares annual programmes of work in the field of mathematics within limitations of specified or standard curriculum, for classes in secondary education establishment; gives instruction at the second level of education in mathematics and related subjects, and conducts discussions; maintains discipline in class; illustrates instruction, as appropriate, by practical demonstrations; prepares, assigns and corrects exercises undertaken by pupils; sets, administers and marks tests and examinations; keeps pupils' work performance, attendance and other records, and reports on their progress to, and discusses with, head teacher and parents.

149. Technical education teacher (second level)

Instructs pupils in an establishment of general or specialised secondary education, such as a technical, vocational or industrial school, in crafts, industrial arts and other technical subjects:

prepares annual programme of work in the field of technical subjects, such as working in wood, metal, stone, leather or other material, technical drafting, graphic arts, photography, elementary mechanical and electrical engineering, and other industrial arts and crafts, within limitations of specified or standard curriculum, for classes in establishments of general or specialised secondary education; gives instruction in basic theory underlying industrial arts and crafts, properties of materials, functions and proper use of tools and machines, safe practices and other aspects of these arts and crafts; conducts discussions and supervises and guides pupils in their practical work; maintains discipline in class; illustrates instruction, as appropriate, by practical demonstrations; prepares, assigns and marks exercises undertaken by pupils; sets, administers and marks tests and examinations; keeps pupils' work performance, attendance and other records, and reports on their progress to, and discusses with, head teacher and parents; where appropriate, looks after stores, equipment and tools.

150. First-level education teacher

Teaches primary academic subjects and elementary principles of social behaviour to children in an establishment of primary education:

prepares annual programme of work in reading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, nature study and other primary academic subjects, within limitations of specified or standard curriculum, for class in establishment of primary education; gives instruction in primary academic subjects, conducts discussions and supervises work in class; maintains discipline in class and instructs pupils in elementary principles of social behaviour; prepares, assigns and corrects exercises undertaken by pupils; sets tests and marks pupils' work; keeps children's work performance, attendance and other records, and reports on their academic progress and social adjustment to, and discusses with. head teacher and parents.

151. Kindergarten teacher

Trains, organises and supervises activities of children (from the age of about two years up to the age at which they normally enter primary school) in kindergarten to promote their physical, mental and social development:

plans, organises and conducts such activities as plays, discussions, story-telling, games, singing, dancing, drawing, painting and modelling, to increase children's understanding of their physical and social environment, stimulate and develop their self-confidence, encourage them in self-expression, foster their co-operative social behaviour and promote their healthy development; looks after the physical needs of children; trains children in cleanliness, obedience, patience, tolerance and other elements of social behaviour; evaluates and discusses children's progress with parents.

MEDICAL AND DENTAL SERVICES

152. General physician

Conducts medical examinations, makes diagnoses, prescribes medicines, gives other forms of treatment for various kinds of diseases, disorders and injuries of the human body, and performs minor surgery according to scientific system of medicine; applies preventive medicine techniques to prevent diseases and promote good health; undertakes such other tasks as are required in general medical practice:

examines patients in surgery or in their own homes and makes or arranges for X-ray examinations or special tests if further information is required; considers results of examinations and tests, consults specialists or other physicians as necessary and diagnoses nature of disorder; prescribes or administers medicines or other remedial treatment, such as minor surgery; arranges for hospital treatment when desirable; advises patients on regimen necessary to maintain or restore health; keeps records of patients examined, their disorders and the treatment given or prescribed; certifies state of health of patients for such purposes as social security, insurance and employment; advises expectant mothers during pregnancy and as required attends confinements and delivers babies.

153. Dentist (general)

Performs diagnostic, preventive and curative services for a variety of dental and oral diseases and disorders, and oral surgery:

conducts examination to determine condition of mouth and teeth of patients, making, or arranging for, any necessary X-ray examinations or special tests; notes conditions requiring treatment and decides on method of treatment; administers local or general anaesthetics as necessary; locates, drills, prepares and fills lesions produced by dental caries; scales and polishes teeth; extracts teeth which are harmful or which must be removed for other reasons; takes impressions of gums, teeth and other parts of the mouth in wax or other materials, for use in making dental appliances such as artificial teeth, braces, crowns and inlays; passes impressions to workshops together with all the details required by dental technicians to fabricate dentures and other appliances; replaces portions of tooth crown by inlay or artificial crown, and lost teeth by bridgework and dentures fitting completed appliances; provides root canal treatment; treats periopical lesions and periodontal diseases; carries out minor oral surgery and corrects malposition of teeth by orthodontic procedures, prescribes drugs or medicaments; performs other duties such as advising patients on measures for the maintenance of oral and dental health; arranges for hospital or specialist treatment where appropriate; keeps case records and prepares necessary returns and reports.

154. Professional nurse (general)

Provides professional nursing services and advice in hospitals, clinics and other establishments which provide medical care and treatment:

gives professional nursing care and advice to ill, injured, infirm and obstetric patients and new-born infants in hospitals, clinics and other establishments which provide medical care and treatment; assists physicians and surgeons in examination and operation of patients and accompanies medical staff on rounds, noting changes in treatment prescribed and giving assistance as required; administers medicines and drugs, applies surgical dressings and gives other forms of treatment prescribed by physicians and surgeons; observes, evaluates and records symptoms, reactions and progress and general conditions of patients, and takes and records temperatures, pulse and respiration rates; prepares patients for operations; removes stitches, clips, etc.; gives first-aid treatment in emergencies and attends seriously ill patients; helps patients to become adjusted to place and methods of treatment; washes and bathes patients and attends to their physical needs in general and makes beds; helps to maintain healthy and hygienic environment for patients and takes-preventive measures to check spread of communicable diseases in ward; as appropriate, prepares, serves and distributes food and feeds helpless patients; attends women in childbirth and cares for new-born infants; gives instructions and advice regarding care of patients during convalescence; assists charge nurse or sister in the organisation of work, the control of more junior nursing staff and non-medical staff, and the tuition of student and pupil nurses; performs other professional nursing tasks, including supervision of rehabilitation exercises for patients or instruction in the use of orthopaedic aids.

155. Auxiliary nurse

Provides simple nursing services to patients, generally under the supervision of a physician or professional nurse, in a hospital or similar institution; performs a variety of simple nursing duties, such as:

prepares patients for examination and attends the examining physician; takes patients' temperature, pulse and respiration rates; gives prescribed medicines at fixed times; changes dressings and gives other simple treatments; feeds children and elderly patients; makes beds and washes and bathes patients and attends to their physical needs and comfort in general; otherwise assists nursing and medical staff as required.

156. Physiotherapist

Treats patients suffering from metabolic diseases, sprains and healing fractures and other body injuries, paralysis and circulatory and nervous disorders, etc., by massage, exercise, hydrotherapy and electrotherapy, usually as prescribed by a physician, to relieve pain and develop or restore functions:

ascertains from medical reports details of patient's condition and the result desired from physiotherapy; plans therapy for each patient accordingly; massages patients to stimulate blood circulation, relax muscles and prevent muscular wasting and relieve pain; instructs patients in, and assists them with, exercises designed to improve the functioning and healing processes of the body and limbs; administers treatment by heat, high-frequency, therapeutic baths or other water treatments, and by moist packs and compresses; utilises mechanical devices such as vibrating and exercising machines; instructs patients in correct posture and in exercises to be undertaken at home; co-operates with others concerned with the rehabilitation and treatment of patients; keeps case records, noting patients' progress and their reaction to therapy.

157. Medical X-ray technician

Operates X-ray and other similar apparatus for medical diagnostic purposes or to give therapeutic treatment, under the direction of a radiologist, a radiotherapist or other specialist medical practitioner:

verifies identity of patient, procedure to be undertaken, such as radiography, fluoroscopy, cineradiography, and treatment to be given, such as by X-ray, linear accelerator or sealed radiation source; checks that necessary preparations have been made for examination or treatment; positions patient accurately and as comfortably as possible and ensures that adequate precautions are taken against radiation hazard to both patients and staff; sets and operates equipment according to length and intensity of exposure required for X-ray photograph or treatment; observes patient's condition before, during and after treatment; develops, fixes, washes and dries X-ray film; makes minor repairs to equipment; keeps records of all radiodiagnostic work undertaken and of all radio-therapeutic treatment given; otherwise assists radiotherapists or radiologists as required.

158. Ambulance driver

Drives ambulance vehicles to carry sick, injured or convalescent persons to hospital, and gives first aid in emergencies:

works as member of a team and drives ambulance on routine and emergency calls; ascertains nature of ailments or injuries before moving patient; gives first aid; assists persons to ambulance or carries them on stretcher; attends to comfort and safety of persons during journey; cleans and disinfects ambulance after use; ensures that medical supplies on ambulance are replenished as necessary and in good condition; maintains log book of journeys performed.

REPAIR OF MOTOR VEHICLES

159. Automobile mechanic

Repairs, services and overhauls automobiles and similar motor vehicles:

ascertains job requirements from worksheet, technical manuals or other specifications; examines vehicle to ascertain nature, extent and location of defects and obtains customer, agreement where necessary to repair defects not listed on worksheet; plans work, using charts and technical manuals; dismantles engine, transmission, differential or other parts requiring attention, using hoisting or jacking and other equipment where necessary; repairs or replaces parts such as pistons, rods, gears, valves, bearings, breaker points and gaskets, and accessories such as spark plugs; relines and adjusts brakes, solders leaks in radiator, rebushes steering mechanism and carries out other repairs; tunes motor by adjusting ignition, carburettor, valves, and timing mechanism; tests repaired vehicle in workshop or on road, and adjusts as necessary.

Services motor vehicles: injects grease into greasing points of vehicle using hand or compressed air-powered grease gun; checks level of oil in gearbox, rear axle, steering box, and engine and replenishes as required; checks levels of fluid in clutch, brake and power-steering reservoirs, of electrolyte in battery and of coolant in radiator and replenishes as required; recharges battery as necessary; drains oil from engine sump, renews oil filter and fills sump with new oil; renews, cleans and adjusts sparking plugs; oils carburettor dampers, dynamo bearings, water pump, door locks and hinges; checks and reports on condition of tyres; checks balance and position of wheels and tyre pressures and adjusts as necessary; checks lighting system and replaces faulty bulbs.

INDUSTRY GROUPS AND OCCUPATIONS

(Coded as far as possible according to the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities, Revision 2, 1968 USIC-68) and Revision 3, 1988 (ISIC-88) and the International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1968 (ISCO-68) and 1988 (ISCO-88).
 ISCO-68ISCO-88ISIC-68ISIC-88
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION (FIELD CROPS)111011
1. Farm supervisor6-00-306111
2. Field crop farm worker6-22-106111
PLANTATIONS111011
3. Plantation supervisor6-00-306112
4. Plantation worker6-23-906112
FORESTRY12102
5. Forest supervisor6-32-206141
6. Forestry worker6-32-306141
LOGGING12202
7. Logger6-31-106141
8. Tree feller and bucker6-31-206141
DEEP-SEA AND COASTAL FISHING130105
9. Deep-sea fisherman6-41-206153
10. Inshore (coastal) maritime fisherman6-41-306152
COALMINING21101
11. Coalmining engineer0-27-202147
12. Miner7-11-057111
13. Underground helper, loader9-99-109311
CRUDE PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION22111/112
14. Petroleum and natural gas engineer0-27-402147
15. Petroleum and natural gas extraction technician0-38-203117
16. Supervisor or general foreman7-00 208113
17. Derrickman7-13-208113
OTHER MINING AND QUARRYING29141/142
18. Miner7-11-057111
19. Quarryman7-11-107111
SLAUGHTERING, PREPARING AND PRESERVING MEAT31111511
20. Butcher7-73-107411
21. Packer
(a) Hand packer9-71-509322
(b) Machine packer9-71-558290
MANUFACTURE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS3112152
22. Dairy product processor7-75-108272
GRAIN MILL PRODUCTS31161531
23. Grain miller7-71-208273
MANUFACTURE OF BAKERY PRODUCTS31171541
24. Baker (ovenman)7-76-207412
SPINNING, WEAVING AND FINISHING TEXTILES3211171
25. Thread and yarn spinner7-52-208261
26. Loom fixer, tuner7-53-207432
27. Cloth weaver (machine)7-54-408262
28. Labourer9-99-109322
MANUFACTURE OF WEARING APPAREL (EXCEPT FOOTWEAR)322181
29. Garment cutter7-94-507435
30. Sewing-machine operator7-95-508263
MANUFACTURE OF LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS (EXCEPT FOOTWEAR)323191
31. Tanner7-61-458265
32. Leather goods maker8-03-107442
MANUFACTURE OF FOOTWEAR324192
33. Clicker cutter (machine)8-02-207442
34. Laster8-02-457442
35. Shoe sewer (machine)8-02-507436
SAWMILLS, PLANING AND OTHER WOOD MILLS3311201
36. Sawmill sawyer7-32-108141
37. Veneer cutter7-32-408141
38. Plywood press operator7-32-608141
MANUFACTURE OF WOODEN FURNITURE AND FIXTURES332361
39. Furniture upholsterer7-96-207437
40. Cabinetmaker8-11-207422
41. Wooden furniture finisher8-19-557422
MANUFACTURE OF PULP, PAPER AND PAPERBOARD3411211
42. Wood grinder7-33-208142
43. Paper-making-machine operator (wet end)7-34-208143
PRINTING, PUBLISHING AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES34222
44. Journalist1-59-152451
45. Stenographer-typist3-21-104111
46. Office clerk3-93-10412/3/4/9
47. Hand compositor9-21-207341
48. Machine compositor
(a) Linotype operator9-21-307341
(b) Monotype keyboard operator9-21-357341
(c) Computer keyboard operator 7341
(d) Typewriter keyboard operator 7341
(e) Filmsetter keyboard operator 7341
49. Printing pressman
(a) Cylinder pressman9-22-208251
(b) Platen pressman9-22-258251
(c) Rotary pressman9-22-308251
(d) Offset pressman9-22-408251
(e) Direct lithographic pressman9-22-508251
(f) Rotogravure pressman9-22-608251
50. Bookbinder (machine)9-26-308252
51. Labourer9-99-109322
MANUFACTURE OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS351241
52. Chemical engineer0-25-102146
53. Chemistry technician0-14-203111
54. Supervisor or general foreman7-00-40815/822
55. Mixing- and blending-machine operator7-41-408151/8221/8222/8229
56. Labourer9-99-109322
MANUFACTURE OF OTHER CHEMICAL PRODUCTS352242
57. Mixing- and blending-machine operator7-41-408151/8221/8222/8229
58. Packer
(Hand packer)9-71-509322
(Machine packer)9-71-558290
59. Labourer9-99-109322
PETROLEUM REFINERIES353232
60. Controlman7-45-508155
IRON AND STEEL BASIC INDUSTRIES371271+2731
61. Occupational health nurse0-71-402230
62. Blast furnaceman (ore smelting)7-21-208121
63. Hot-roller (steel)7-22-208122
64. Metal melter7-238122
(a) Metal-melting furnaceman (except Cupola)7-23-208122
(b) Cupola furnaceman7-23-308122
65. Labourer9-99-108122
MANUFACTURE OF METAL PRODUCTS (EXCEPT MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT)38128
66. Metalworking machine setter8-33-057223
67. Welder8-72-107212
MANUFACTURE OF MACHINERY (EXCEPT ELECTRICAL)38229
68. Bench moulder (metal)7-25-207211
69. Machinery fitter-assembler8-41-108281
70. Labourer9-99-109322
MANUFACTURE OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES38331
71. Electronics draughtsman0-32-303118
72. Electronics engineering technician0-34-103114
73. Electronics fitter8-52-107242
74. Electronic equipment assembler8-53-308283
SHIPBUILDING AND REPAIRING3841351
75. Ship plater8-74-557214
ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER4101401
76. Power distribution and transmission engineer0-23-302143
77. Office clerk3-93-10412/3/4/9
78. Electric power lineman8-57-207245
79. Power- generating machinery operator9-618161
(a) Steam power-plant operator9-61-208161
(b) Hydroelectric station operator9-61-308161
(c) Power-reactor operator9-61-408161
80. Labourer9-99-109322
CONSTRUCTION545
81. Building electrician8-55-207137
82. Plumber8-71-057136
83. Constructional steel erector8-74-407214
84. Building painter9-31-207141
85. Bricklayer (construction)9-51-207122
86. Reinforced concreter9-52-107123
87. Cement finisher9-52-407123
88. Construction carpenter9-54-157124
89. Plasterer9-55-107133
90. Labourer9-99-109312/9313
WHOLESALE TRADE (GROCERY)61512
91. Stenographer-typist3-21-104111
92. Stock records clerk3-91-304131
93. Salesperson4-51-205220
RETAIL TRADE (GROCERY)62522
94. Book-keeper3-31-103433
95. Cash desk cashier3-31-604211
96. Salesperson4-51-305220
RESTAURANTS AND HOTELS6355
97. Hotel receptionist3-94-204222
98. Cook5-31-305122
99. Waiter5-32-105123
100. Room attendant or chambermaid5-40-509132
RAILWAY TRANSPORT7111601
101. Ticket seller (cash desk cashier)3-31-604211
102. Railway services supervisor3-59-204133
103. Railway passenger train guard3-60-205112
104. Railway vehicle loader9-71-309333
105. Railway engine-driver9-83-208311
106. Railway steam-engine fireman9-83-308162
107. Railway signalman9-84-308312
PASSENGER TRANSPORT BY ROAD71126021
108. Road transport services supervisor3-59-404133
109. Bus conductor3-60-405112
110. Automobile mechanic8 43-207231
111.Motor bus driver9-85-408323
FREIGHT TRANSPORT BY ROAD71146023
112. Urban motor truck driver9-85-508324
113. Long-distance motor truck driver9-85.608324
MARITIME TRANSPORT7121611
114. Ship's chief engineer0-43-153141
115. Ship's steward (passenger)5-40-605111
116. Able seaman9-81-308340
SUPPORTING SERVICES TO MARITIME TRANSPORT7123630
117. Dockworker9-71-209333
AIR TRANSPORT713162
118. Air transport pilot0-41-203143
119. Flight operations officer3-59-704133
120. Airline ground receptionist3-94-904221
121. Aircraft cabin attendant5-99-705111
122. Aircraft engine mechanic8-44-107232
123. Aircraft loader9-71-359333
SUPPORTING SERVICES TO AIR TRANSPORT71326303
124. Air traffic controller3-59-603144
125. Aircraft accident fire-fighter5-81-405161
COMMUNICATION7264
126. Post office counter clerk3-31-704212
127. Postman3-70-304142
128. Telephone switchboard operator3-80-204223
BANKS8101651
129. Accountant1-10-102411
130. Stenographer-typist3-21-104111
131. Bank teller3-31-404212
132. Book-keeping machine operator3-41-204114
INSURANCE82660
133. Computer programmer0-84-202132
134. Stenographer-typist3-21-104111
135. Card- and tape-punching machine operator3-22-204113
136. Insurance agent4-41-203412
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES8324742
137. Clerk of works0-33-403112
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION9175
138. Computer programmer0-84-202132
139. Government executive official:
(a) Central government3-10-10
(b) Regional or provincial government3-10-10
(c) Local authority official (middle level)3-10-10
140. Stenographer-typist3-21-104111
141. Card- and tape-punching machine operator3-22-204113
142. Office clerk3-93-10412/3/4/9
143. Fire-fighter5-81-105161
SANITARY SERVICES9290
144. Refuse collector9-99-109161
EDUCATION SERVICES93180
145. Mathematics teacher (third level)1-31-402310 803
146. Teacher in languages and literature (third level)1-31-702310 803
147. Teacher in languages and literature (second level)1-32-152320 802
148. Mathematics teacher (second level)1-32-202320 802
149. Technical education teacher (second level)1-32-802320 802
150. First-level education teacher1-33-202331/3310 801
151. Kindergarten teacher1-34-202332/3320 801
MEDICAL AND DENTAL SERVICES9331851
152. General physician0-61-052221
153. Dentist (general)0-63-102222
154. Professional nurse (general)0-71-102230
155. Auxiliary nurse0-72-103231
156. Physiotherapist0-76-203226
157. Medical X-ray technician0-77-103133
158. Ambulance driver9-85-908322
REPAIR OF MOTOR VEHICLES9513502
159. Automobile mechanic8-43-207231